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分类: Java

2006-11-18 17:10:44

SNMP4J 是 APACHE 的一个开源项目,为 SNMP 的编程提供了一个很好的框架.支持 SNMPv1, v2c, v3 版本.既可以编写客户端程序,也可以编写服务器端程序.


以下是 org.snmp4j 包下的说明

Provides classes and interfaces for creating, sending, and receiving SNMP messages.

The org.snmp4j classes are capable of creating, sending, and receiving SNMPv1/v2c/v3 messages. A SNMP message is composed of its message header and its PDU payload. This package contains three main groups of classes and interfaces:

  • Classes for SNMP message and target creation
  • Classes for SNMP message sending (command generation)
  • Classes for SNMP message dispatching (command responding)

The following UML package diagram illustrates the dependencies between the packages of the core SNMP4J API. Users of the API normally only need to use the org.snmp4j and the org.snmp4j.smi packages directly.


The following UML class diagram shows the most important classes of the org.snmp4j package and their relationships (relationships to other packages are not shown):.

SNMP Messages and Targets

To exchange a SNMP message with a remote system, that system has to be identified, retransmission, and timeout policy information about the message exchange has to be specified. A remote system is specified with SNMP4J by creating a Target instance appropriate for the SNMP protocol to be used.

  • For SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c the CommunityTarget has to be used which provides community information in addition to the address, retransmission, and timeout policy information defined by the Target interface.
  • For SNMPv3 the UserTarget has to be used instead. It extends the SecureTarget abstract class and provides the following User Based Security Model (USM) user information: security name, security level, security model (i.e. USM), and authoritative engine ID.

A SNMP message consists of the message's payload, the SNMP Protocol Data Unit (PDU) and a message header. Simplified said, in SNMP4J the message header information is represented by Target instances and the PDU is represented by one of the following classes:

  • PDUv1 (SNMPv1)
  • PDU (SNMPv2c)
  • ScopedPDU (SNMPv3)
Thus, in order to be able to send a SNMP message with SNMP4J, a PDU instance and a Target instance have to be created.

PDU Examples (PDU 使用的例子)

    import org.snmp4j.PDU;
    import org.snmp4j.smi.*;
    PDU pdu = new PDU();
    pdu.add(new VariableBinding(new OID(""))); // sysDescr
    pdu.add(new VariableBinding(new OID(""))); // ifNumber
    import org.snmp4j.ScopedPDU;
    import org.snmp4j.smi.*;
    ScopedPDU pdu = new ScopedPDU();
    pdu.add(new VariableBinding(new OID(""))); // ifNumber
    pdu.add(new VariableBinding(new OID(""))); // ifInOctets
    pdu.add(new VariableBinding(new OID(""))); // ifOutOctets
    // Get ifNumber only once
    // set context non-default context (default context does not need to be set)
    pdu.setContextName(new OctetString("subSystemContextA"));
    // set non-default context engine ID (to use targets authoritative engine ID
    // use an empty (size == 0) octet string)
  • SNMPv1 TRAP PDU ()
    import org.snmp4j.PDUv1;
    PDUv1 pdu = new PDUv1();
    import org.snmp4j.ScopedPDU;
    ScopedPDU pdu = new ScopedPDU();
    // sysUpTime
    long sysUpTime = (System.currentTimeMillis() - startTime) / 10;
    pdu.add(new VariableBinding(SnmpConstants.sysUpTime, new TimeTicks(sysUpTime)));
    pdu.add(new VariableBinding(SnmpConstants.snmpTrapOID, SnmpConstants.linkDown));
    // payload
    pdu.add(new VariableBinding(new OID(""+downIndex),
                                new Integer32(downIndex)));

Target Examples (对象例子)

  • Community Target
    CommunityTarget target = new CommunityTarget();
    target.setCommunity(new OctetString("public"));
  • User Target
    UserTarget target = new UserTarget();
    // set timeout to 500 milliseconds -> 2*500ms = 1s total timeout
    target.setSecurityName(new OctetString("MD5DES"));

Sending SNMP messages

SNMP message are sent with SNMP4J by using a instance of the SNMP Session interface. The default implementation of this interface is the Snmp class.

To setup a Snmp instance it is sufficient to call its constructor with a TransportMapping instance. The transport mapping is used by the SNMP session to send (and receive) SNMP message to a remote systems by using a transport protocol, for example the User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

A SNMP4J Snmp instance supports SNMP v1, v2c, and v3 by default. By sub-classing Snmp other combinations of those SNMP protocol versions can be supported.

With SNMP4J, SNMP messages can be sent synchronously (blocking) and asynchronously (non-blocking). The Snmp class does not use an internal thread to process responses on asynchronous and synchronous requests. Nevertheless it uses the receiver threads of the transport mappings to process responses.

Asynchronous responses are returned by calling a callback method on an object instance that implements the ResponseListener interface. The callback is carried out on behalf of the transport mapping thread that received the response packet from the wire. Thus, if the called method blocks, the delivery of synchronous and asynchronous messages received on the listen port of that transport mapping will be also blocked. Other transport mapping will not be affected. Blocking can be avoided by either using synchronous messages only or by decoupling the processing within the callback method.

Example for Sending a Synchronous Message (发送同步消息)

import org.snmp4j.*;
Snmp snmp = new Snmp(new DefaultUdpTransportMapping());
ResponseEvent response = snmp.send(requestPDU, target);
if (response.getResponse() == null) {
    // request timed out
else {
    System.out.println("Received response from: "+
    // dump response PDU

Example for Sending an Asynchronous Message (发送异步消息)

import org.snmp4j.*;
import org.snmp4j.event.*;
Snmp snmp = new Snmp(new DefaultUdpTransportMapping());
ResponseListener listener = new ResponseListener() {
    public void onResponse(ResponseEvent event) {
        PDU response = event.getResponse();
        PDU request = event.getRequest();
        if (response == null) {
            System.out.println("Request "+request+" timed out");
        else {
            System.out.println("Received response "+response+" on request "+
snmp.sendPDU(request, target, null, listener);

Receiving SNMP messages(接收SNMP信息)

SNMP4J receives SNMP messages through the listen port of transport mappings. In order to be able to receive responses or requests, that port needs to be set into listen mode. This has to be done by calling the listen() method of the TransportMapping instance to start the transport mappings internal listen thread. The internal thread is stopped and the listen port is closed by calling the close() method on the TransportMapping instance or the associated Snmp instance.

The transport mapping just receives the SNMP mesage as a stream of bytes and forwards the message to associated MessageDispatcher instances. By default, SNMP4J uses one instance of the MessageDispatcherImpl class for decoding and dispatching incoming messages. That instance is created and used internally by the Snmp class.

The Snmp class processes responses to outstanding requests and forwards PDUs of other SNMP messages to registered CommandResponder listener instances. To receive SNMP messages it is thus sufficient to

  1. Create a TransportMapping and initialize its listen port by calling TransportMapping.listen().
  2. Create a Snmp instance with the above TransportMapping.
  3. Instantiate a class that implements the CommandResponder interface and register it with the Snmp instance by calling Snmp.addCommandResponder(CommandResponder).

When a unhandled SNMP message (thus a SNMP message where no corresponding outstanding request exists) is received, then the processPdu(CommandResponderEvent) method of the CommandResponder will be called with the decoded PDU and additional information about the received SNMP message provided by the message processing model that has decoded the SNMP message.

Example for Receiving SNMP Messages (接收SNMP消息的例子)

import org.snmp4j.*;
import org.snmp4j.smi.*;
TransportMapping transport =
    new DefaultUdpTransportMapping(new UdpAddress(""));
Snmp snmp = new Snmp(transport);
if (version == SnmpConstants.version3) {
    byte[] localEngineID =
    USM usm = new USM(SecurityProtocols.getInstance(),
                      new OctetString(localEngineID), 0);
    snmp.setLocalEngine(localEngineID, 0, 0);
    // Add the configured user to the USM
public synchronized void processPdu(CommandResponderEvent e) {
    PDU command = e.getPdu();
    if (command != null) {
以下是 org.snmp4j.smi 包下的说明:
Provides classes for the representation of SMIv1/v2 data types (which also includes some basic ASN.1 primitive data types). 

The org.snmp4j.smi classes are capable of BER encoding and decoding themself to/from a byte stream. In addition, the SMI data type classes provide convenient functions for manipulating their content.

The VariantVariable is a special class that can be used in command responder applications to intercept access to a SMI value.

Variable Binding Examples

import org.snmp4j.smi.*;
VariableBinding vb = new VariableBinding(new OID(""));
vb.setValue(new OctetString("SNMP4J Text"));
vb = new VariableBinding();
vb.setOid(new OID(new int[] { 1,3,6,1,2,1,1,2,0 }));
vb = new VariableBinding(vb.getOid(), new IpAddress(""));
vb = new VariableBinding(vb.getOid(), new Gauge32(2^32-1));
int syntax = vb.getSyntax();
if (syntax != SMIConstants.SYNTAX_GAUGE32) {
  // never reached
else {
  long value = ((UnsignedInteger32)vb.getValue()).getValue();
  System.out.println(vb.getOid() + " = " + value);
  // prints: = 4294967295

The following UML class diagram shows the most important classes of the org.snmp4j.smi package and their relationships (relationships to other packages are not shown):

以下是 org.snmp.asn1 包中的说明
Provides classes and interfaces for the mapping between Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) formatted values and their transfer syntax according to the Basic Encoding Rules (BER). 

The org.snmp4j.asn1 classes are capable of serializing of ASN.1 formatted values into a byte stream and deserializing the same from a byte stream. There are three groups of classes/interfaces in this package:

  • The BER class implements the BER serialization and deserialization by providing static methods for encoding/decoding of primitive ASN.1 and Structure of Management Information (SMI) data types.
  • The BERSerializable interface provides a common interface for all objects that are (de)serializable according to the Basic Encoding Rules (BER).
  • The BERInputStream and the BEROutputStream provide optimized implementations for the serialization and deserialization of the InputStream and OutputStream abstract classes.

The following UML class diagram shows the most important classes of the org.snmp4j.asn1 package and their relationships (relationships to other packages are not shown):

以下是 包中的说明
Provides classes and interfaces for the SNMP message processing. 

The classes provide services to process SNMP messages. The services provided are defined in the MessageProcessingModel interface and include the following:

  • Prepare data elements from an incoming SNMP message as described in RFC3412 §7.2.
  • Prepare a response message as defined in RFC3412 §7.1.
  • Prepare an outgoing message as defined in RFC3412 §7.1.

This interface is implemented by the message processing model classes for the SNMP versions 1, v2c, and v3: MPv1, MPv2c, and MPv3.

The MessageDispatcherImpl chooses which message processing model it uses to process an outgoing or incoming SNMP message based on the SNMP version of the message. The SNMP version is either extracted from the message header (incoming message) or from the Target instance associated with the outgoing PDU (ougoing message).

To be able to match requests and responses SNMP uses request IDs. Since request IDs are created by the command generator, the request IDs are unique within such a command generator only. SNMP4J therefore has to abstract from request IDs and uses PduHandle instances instead.

If a PDU is processed for sending by the SNMP4J MessageDispatcherImpl and the PDU's request ID is set to 0, then a SNMP4J application wide unique ID is generated and set as request ID of the supplied PDU. In any case, the PDU's request ID will be used as transaction ID of the outgoing message. The transaction ID identifies a messages PduHandle.

If a PDU is received by the SNMP4J MessageDispatcherImpl a unique transaction ID is generated so that command responders as well as the message processing model can match requests and responses.

The following UML class diagram shows the most important classes of the package and their relationships (relationships to other packages are not shown):

以下是 org.snmp4j.transport 包中的说明
Provides transport protocol mappings for SNMP. 

The org.snmp4j.transport classes are capable of sending and receiving byte messages to and from a network using transport mapping specific transport protocol. All SNMP4J transport mappings have to implement the org.snmp4j.TransportMapping interface. SNMP4J supports two transport mappings for the transport protocols UDP and TCP:

  • The UDP transport mapping is the default SNMP transport mapping. It is implemented by the DefaultUdpTransportMapping class.
  • The TCP transport mapping is implemented by the DefaultTcpTransportMapping using the java.nio package.

Additional transport mappings can be easily added. It is sufficient to implement the org.snmp4j.TransportMapping interface and add an instance of that class to the Snmp (or MessageDispatcher) object. To be able to lookup a transport mapping by an Address class via the TransportMappings (as Snmp does for notification listeners), a transport mapping has to be registered in a transport mapping registration file. The default file is in the org.snmp4j.transport package. To use a different file, set the system property org.snmp4j.transportMappings.

Connection-oriented transport mappings like TCP should implement the ConnectionOrientedTransportMapping interface to support MessageLengthDecoder and TransportStateListener.

The following UML class diagram shows the classes of the org.snmp4j.transport package and their relationships (relationships to other packages are not shown):

UML Class Diagram org.snmp4j.transport
以下是 org.snmp4j.util 包中的说明
Contains table retrieval utilities and multi-threading support classes as well as miscellaneous utility classes. 

The org.snmp4j.util contains the following groups of classes:

  • Classes for SNMP table retrieval. The class TableUtils can be used to asynchronously retrieve table data effeciently row by row.
  • Classes for support of multi-threaded message dispatching. The class MultiThreadedMessageDispatcher implements the MessageDispatcher interface and uses the MessageDispatcherImpl class to dispatch incoming message using the threads of a ThreadPool.

The following UML class diagram shows the classes of the org.snmp4j.util package and their relationships (relationships to other packages are not shown):

在 SNMP4J 包中还有多线程的东东,主要用于服务器端.文档里没写,去看 API 吧,里面有绍.
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