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分类: LINUX

2011-06-27 10:51:46

1. 基本机制 
1)数据结构 
struct notifier_block 

int (*notifier_call)(struct notifier_block *self, unsigned long, void *); 
struct notifier_block *next; 
int priority; /*用于对注册者进行优先级排队,高优先级的处理例程将被优先执行,由注册者自己指定 */ 
}; 
2)基本例程 
extern int notifier_chain_register(struct notifier_block **list, struct notifier_block *n); 
说明:注册到某个notifier_block链;这时的n可以只要初始化(*notifier_call)指针; 
extern int notifier_chain_unregister(struct notifier_block **nl, struct notifier_block *n); 
说明:从某个notifier_block链中移去n; 
extern int notifier_call_chain(struct notifier_block **n, unsigned long val, void *v); 
说明:轮循执行某个notifier_block链中的所有notifier_block,对其(*notifier_call)传入参数val和*v; 
其中val应该是EVENT NUMBER,而*v是导致这个事件的数据结构,比如某个网络设备UP,则val=NETDEV_UP,v=dev; 
3)返回值 
#define NOTIFY_DONE 0x0000 /* Don't care */ 
#define NOTIFY_OK 0x0001 /* Suits me */ 
#define NOTIFY_STOP_MASK 0x8000 /* Don't call further */ 
#define NOTIFY_BAD (NOTIFY_STOP_MASK|0x0002) /* Bad/Veto action */ 

4)已定义事件 
/* 
* Declared notifiers so far. I can imagine quite a few more chains 
* over time (eg laptop power reset chains, reboot chain (to clean 
* device units up), device [un]mount chain, module load/unload chain, 
* low memory chain, screenblank chain (for plug in modular screenblankers) 
* VC switch chains (for loadable kernel svgalib VC switch helpers) etc... 
*/ 

/* netdevice notifier chain */ 
#define NETDEV_UP 0x0001 /* For now you can't veto a device up/down */ 
#define NETDEV_DOWN 0x0002 
#define NETDEV_REBOOT 0x0003 /* Tell a protocol stack a network interface 
detected a hardware crash and restarted 
- we can use this eg to kick tcp sessions 
once done */ 
#define NETDEV_CHANGE 0x0004 /* Notify device state change */ 
#define NETDEV_REGISTER 0x0005 
#define NETDEV_UNREGISTER 0x0006 
#define NETDEV_CHANGEMTU 0x0007 
#define NETDEV_CHANGEADDR 0x0008 
#define NETDEV_GOING_DOWN 0x0009 
#define NETDEV_CHANGENAME 0x000A 

#define SYS_DOWN 0x0001 /* Notify of system down */ 
#define SYS_RESTART SYS_DOWN 
#define SYS_HALT 0x0002 /* Notify of system halt */ 
#define SYS_POWER_OFF 0x0003 /* Notify of system power off */ 


2. 举例分析 
以网络设备的通知信息块netdev_chain为例来说明如何使用notification机制。 
在net/core/dev.c中定义了netdev_chain链: 
static struct notifier_block *netdev_chain=NULL; 
提供别的模块的接口,以便它们使用netdev_chain链: 
/* 
* Device change register/unregister. These are not inline or static 
* as we export them to the world. 
*/ 

/** 
* register_netdevice_notifier - register a network notifier block 
* @nb: notifier 

* Register a notifier to be called when network device events occur. 
* The notifier passed is linked into the kernel structures and must 
* not be reused until it has been unregistered. A negative errno code 
* is returned on a failure. 
*/ 

int register_netdevice_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb) 

return notifier_chain_register(&netdev_chain, nb); 


/** 
* unregister_netdevice_notifier - unregister a network notifier block 
* @nb: notifier 

* Unregister a notifier previously registered by 
* register_netdevice_notifier(). The notifier is unlinked into the 
* kernel structures and may then be reused. A negative errno code 
* is returned on a failure. 
*/ 

int unregister_netdevice_notifier(struct notifier_block *nb) 

return notifier_chain_unregister(&netdev_chain,nb); 


以X25为例来说明使用者。 
在af_x25.c中,定义了: 
struct notifier_block x25_dev_notifier = { 
notifier_call: x25_device_event, 
}; 
然后模块初始化时向netdev_chain注册: 
static int __init x25_init(void) 

... ... 
register_netdevice_notifier(&x25_dev_notifier); 
... ... 

比如当NETDEV_UP事件发生时,调用到: 
notifier_call_chain(&netdev_chain, NETDEV_UP, dev); 
就会执行到x25_dev_notifier中注册的处理例程:x25_device_event,至于对相应的事件(event number)是不是感兴趣, 
需要处理例程自己来判断。 
static int x25_device_event(struct notifier_block *this, unsigned long event, void *ptr) 

struct net_device *dev = (struct net_device *)ptr; 
struct x25_neigh *neigh; 

if (dev->type == ARPHRD_X25 
#if defined(CONFIG_LLC) || defined(CONFIG_LLC_MODULE) 
|| dev->type == ARPHRD_ETHER 
#endif 
) { 
switch (event) { 
case NETDEV_UP: 
x25_link_device_up(dev); 
break; 
case NETDEV_GOING_DOWN: 
if ((neigh = x25_get_neigh(dev))) 
x25_terminate_link(neigh); 
break; 
case NETDEV_DOWN: 
x25_kill_by_device(dev); 
x25_route_device_down(dev); 
x25_link_device_down(dev); 
break; 



return NOTIFY_DONE; 


所有关于网络设备的事件全部在net/core/dev.c中发生,从而引发notifier_call_chain(&netdev_chain,val, dev)的调用: 
Dev.c (linux\net\core): notifier_call_chain(&netdev_chain, NETDEV_CHANGE, dev); 
Dev.c (linux\net\core): notifier_call_chain(&netdev_chain, NETDEV_UP, dev); 
Dev.c (linux\net\core): notifier_call_chain(&netdev_chain, NETDEV_GOING_DOWN, dev); 
Dev.c (linux\net\core): notifier_call_chain(&netdev_chain, NETDEV_DOWN, dev); 
Dev.c (linux\net\core): notifier_call_chain(&netdev_chain, NETDEV_CHANGE, dev); 
Dev.c (linux\net\core): notifier_call_chain(&netdev_chain, NETDEV_CHANGEMTU, dev); 
Dev.c (linux\net\core): notifier_call_chain(&netdev_chain, NETDEV_CHANGEADDR, dev); 
Dev.c (linux\net\core): notifier_call_chain(&netdev_chain, NETDEV_CHANGEADDR, dev); 
Dev.c (linux\net\core): notifier_call_chain(&netdev_chain, NETDEV_CHANGENAME, dev); 
Dev.c (linux\net\core): notifier_call_chain(&netdev_chain, NETDEV_REGISTER, dev); 
Dev.c (linux\net\core): notifier_call_chain(&netdev_chain, NETDEV_UNREGISTER, dev); 
Dev.c (linux\net\core): notifier_call_chain(&netdev_chain, NETDEV_UNREGISTER, dev); 

3. 总结 
从上面的分析可以看出,Linux下的Notification机制不是通过消息的方式实现的,而是一旦外部事件发生,所以对这个事件感兴趣的模 块都会立即响应这个事件。但是,这个通知机制的效率不是很高,因为它的粒度不够细,比如A对E1、E2事件感兴趣,B对E2、E3感兴趣,但是E1~E3 都是由N链来管理的,这样当发生E1事件时,A、B的处理例程都会被调用一次。如果能够区分对待不同模块感兴趣的事件集,然后只把事件发送到感兴趣的模 块,效率会更高一些。另外,对优先级的处理是必须得,但是如何利用这个优先级似乎没有很好的说明和例证。
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