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分类: LINUX

2011-03-30 18:08:15

Linux USB gadget设备驱动解析(4)--编写一个gadget驱动

作者:刘洪涛,讲师。

一、编写计划

通过前面几节的基础,本节计划编写一个简单的gadget驱动。重在让大家快速了解gadget驱动结构。

上节中简单介绍了zero.c程序。这个程序考虑到了多配置、高速传输、USB OTG等因素。应该说写的比较清楚,是我们了解gadget驱动架构的一个非常好的途径。但把这些东西都放在一起,对很多初学人员来说还是不能快速理解。那就再把它简化一些,针对S3C2410平台,只实现一个配置、一个接口、一个端点,不考虑高速及OTG的情况。只完成单向从host端接收数据的功能,但要把字符设备驱动结合在里面。这需要有一个host端的驱动,来完成向device端发送数据。关于在主机端编写一个简单的USB设备驱动程序,有很多的资料。相信大家很快就会完成的。

二、功能展示

1、PC端编写了一个usbtransfer.ko,能够向device端发送数据

2、对目标平台编写一个gadget驱动,名称是g_zero.ko

3、测试步骤

在目标平台(基于S3C2410)上加载gadget驱动

# insmod g_zero.ko 
        name=ep1-bulk
        smdk2410_udc: Pull-up enable
        # mknod /dev/usb_rcv c 251 0
        #

在PC主机上加载驱动usbtransfer.ko

#insmod usbtransfer.ko
        #mknod /dev/usbtransfer c 266 0

连接设备,目标平台的终端显示:

connected

目标平台读取数据

# cat /dev/usb_rcv

PC端发送数据

#echo “12345” > /dev/usbtransfer
        #echo “abcd” > /dev/usbtransfer

设备端会显示收到的数据

# cat /dev/usb_rcv
        
12345
        
abcd

三、代码分析

下面的代码是在原有的zero.c基础上做了精简、修改的。一些结构的名称还是保留以前的,但含义有所变化。如:loopback_config,不再表示loopback,而只是单向的接收数据。
/*

* zero.c -- Gadget Zero, for simple USB development
        * lht@farsight.com.cn
        * All rights reserved.*/
        /* #define VERBOSE_DEBUG */

#include
        #include
        #include
        #include
        #include
        #include "gadget_chips.h"
        #include
        #include
        #include
        #include
        #include
        #include
        #include
        #include
        #include /* size_t */
        #include /* error codes */
        #include
        #include
        #include

/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
        static const char shortname[] = "zero";
        static const char loopback[] = "loop input to output";
        static const char longname[] = "Gadget Zero";
        static const char source_sink[] = "source and sink data";
        #define STRING_MANUFACTURER 25
        #define STRING_PRODUCT 42
        #define STRING_SERIAL 101
        #define STRING_SOURCE_SINK 250
        #define STRING_LOOPBACK 251

//#define DRIVER_VENDOR_NUM 0x0525 /* NetChip */
        //#define DRIVER_PRODUCT_NUM 0xa4a0 /* Linux-USB "Gadget Zero" */
        #define DRIVER_VENDOR_NUM 0x5345 /* NetChip */
        #define DRIVER_PRODUCT_NUM 0x1234 /* Linux-USB "Gadget Zero" */

static int usb_zero_major = 251;
        /*-------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
        static const char *EP_OUT_NAME; /* sink */
        /*-------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

/* big enough to hold our biggest descriptor */
        #define USB_BUFSIZ 256
        struct zero_dev { //zero设备结构
                    spinlock_t lock;
                    struct usb_gadget *gadget;
                    struct usb_request *req; /* for control responses */
                    struct usb_ep *out_ep;
                    struct cdev cdev;
                    unsigned char data[128];
                    unsigned int data_size;
                    wait_queue_head_t bulkrq; 
        };
        #define CONFIG_LOOPBACK 2
        static struct usb_device_descriptor device_desc = { //设备描述符
                    .bLength = sizeof device_desc,
                    .bDescriptorType = USB_DT_DEVICE,
                    .bcdUSB = __constant_cpu_to_le16(0x0110),
                    .bDeviceClass = USB_CLASS_VENDOR_SPEC,
                    .idVendor = __constant_cpu_to_le16(DRIVER_VENDOR_NUM),
                    .idProduct = __constant_cpu_to_le16(DRIVER_PRODUCT_NUM),
                    .iManufacturer = STRING_MANUFACTURER,
                    .iProduct = STRING_PRODUCT,
                    .iSerialNumber = STRING_SERIAL,
                    .bNumConfigurations = 1,
        };
        static struct usb_endpoint_descriptor fs_sink_desc = { //端点描述符
                    .bLength = USB_DT_ENDPOINT_SIZE,
                    .bDescriptorType = USB_DT_ENDPOINT,

   .bEndpointAddress = USB_DIR_OUT, //对主机端来说,输出
                    .bmAttributes = USB_ENDPOINT_XFER_BULK,
        };

static struct usb_config_descriptor loopback_config = { //配置描述符
                    .bLength = sizeof loopback_config,
                    .bDescriptorType = USB_DT_CONFIG,
                    /* compute wTotalLength on the fly */
                    .bNumInterfaces = 1,
                    .bConfigurationValue = CONFIG_LOOPBACK,
                    .iConfiguration = STRING_LOOPBACK,
                    .bmAttributes = USB_CONFIG_ATT_ONE | USB_CONFIG_ATT_SELFPOWER,
                    .bMaxPower = 1, /* self-powered */
        };
        static const struct usb_interface_descriptor loopback_intf = { //接口描述符
                    .bLength = sizeof loopback_intf,
                    .bDescriptorType = USB_DT_INTERFACE,

    .bNumEndpoints = 1,
                    .bInterfaceClass = USB_CLASS_VENDOR_SPEC,
                    .iInterface = STRING_LOOPBACK,
        };
        /* static strings, in UTF-8 */
        #define STRING_MANUFACTURER 25
        #define STRING_PRODUCT 42
        #define STRING_SERIAL 101
        #define STRING_SOURCE_SINK 250
        #define STRING_LOOPBACK 251
        static char manufacturer[50];
        /* default serial number takes at least two packets */
        static char serial[] = "0123456789.0123456789.0123456789";
        static struct usb_string strings[] = { //字符串描述符
                    { STRING_MANUFACTURER, manufacturer, },
                    { STRING_PRODUCT, longname, },
                    { STRING_SERIAL, serial, },
                    { STRING_LOOPBACK, loopback, },
                    { STRING_SOURCE_SINK, source_sink, },
                    { } /* end of list */
        };

static struct usb_gadget_strings stringtab = {
                    .language = 0x0409, /* en-us */
                    .strings = strings,
        };

static const struct usb_descriptor_header *fs_loopback_function[] = {
                    (struct usb_descriptor_header *) &loopback_intf,
                    (struct usb_descriptor_header *) &fs_sink_desc,
                    NULL,
        };

static int
        usb_zero_open (struct inode *inode, struct file *file) //打开设备
        {
                  struct zero_dev *dev =
                    container_of (inode->i_cdev, struct zero_dev, cdev);
                    file->private_data = dev;
                  init_waitqueue_head (&dev->bulkrq);

         return 0;
        }

static int
        usb_zero_release (struct inode *inode, struct file *file) //关闭设备
        {
                  return 0;
        }
        static void free_ep_req(struct usb_ep *ep, struct usb_request *req)
        {
                    kfree(req->buf);
                    usb_ep_free_request(ep, req);
        }
        static struct usb_request *alloc_ep_req(struct usb_ep *ep, unsigned length)//分配请求
        {
                    struct usb_request *req;

            req = usb_ep_alloc_request(ep, GFP_ATOMIC);
                    if (req) {
                                req->length = length;
                                req->buf = kmalloc(length, GFP_ATOMIC);
                                if (!req->buf) {
                                        usb_ep_free_request(ep, req);
                                        req = NULL;
                                }
                    }
                    return req;
        }
        static void source_sink_complete(struct usb_ep *ep, struct usb_request *req)//请求完成函数
        {
                    struct zero_dev *dev = ep->driver_data;
                    int status = req->status;
                    switch (status) {
                    case 0: /* normal completion */
                               if (ep == dev->out_ep) {
                                        memcpy(dev->data, req->buf, req-> actual);//返回数据拷贝到req->buf中,                                                                                                     //dev->data_size=req->length; 
                                        dev->data_size=req->actual; //实际长度为req-> actual;需要确认
        req –>short_not_ok为0。参考gadget.h中关于usb_request结构的注释
                                } 
                                break;
                     /* this endpoint is normally active while we're configured */
                    case -ECONNABORTED: /* hardware forced ep reset */
                    case -ECONNRESET: /* request dequeued */
                    case -ESHUTDOWN: /* disconnect from host */
                               printk("%s gone (%d), %d/%d\n", ep->name, status,
                                                  req->actual, req->length);
                    case -EOVERFLOW: /* buffer overrun on read means that
                                                              * we didn't provide a big enough
                                                              * buffer.
                                                              */
                    default:
        #if 1
                               printk("%s complete --> %d, %d/%d\n", ep->name,
                                                  status, req->actual, req->length);
        #endif
                    case -EREMOTEIO: /* short read */
                               break;
                    }
                    free_ep_req(ep, req);
                    wake_up_interruptible (&dev->bulkrq); //唤醒读函数
        }

static struct usb_request *source_sink_start_ep(struct usb_ep *ep)//构造并发送读请求
        {
                    struct usb_request *req;
                    int status;
                    //printk("in %s\n",__FUNCTION__);
                    req = alloc_ep_req(ep, 128);
                    if (!req)
                               return NULL;
                    memset(req->buf, 0, req->length);
                    req->complete = source_sink_complete; //请求完成函数
                    status = usb_ep_queue(ep, req, GFP_ATOMIC); //递交请求
                    if (status) {
                             struct zero_dev *dev = ep->driver_data;
                             printk("start %s --> %d\n", ep->name, status);
                             free_ep_req(ep, req);
                             req = NULL;
                    }
                    return req;
        }
        ssize_t
        usb_zero_read (struct file * file, const char __user * buf, size_t count,loff_t * f_pos) //读设备
        {
                    struct zero_dev *dev =file->private_data;
                    struct usb_request *req;
                    int status;
                    struct usb_ep *ep;
                    struct usb_gadget *gadget = dev->gadget;
                    ssize_t ret = 0;
                    int result;
                    ep=dev->out_ep;
                    source_sink_start_ep(ep);//构造、递交读请求
                    if (count < 0)
                             return -EINVAL;
                    interruptible_sleep_on (&dev->bulkrq);//睡眠,等到请求完成
                    if (copy_to_user (buf,dev->data,dev->data_size)) //拷贝读取的数据到用户空间
                    {
                         ret = -EFAULT;
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        ret = dev->data_size;
                    }
                    return ret;
        }

struct file_operations usb_zero_fops = {
                .owner = THIS_MODULE,
                .read = usb_zero_read,
                .open = usb_zero_open,
                .release = usb_zero_release,
        };

static void
        usb_zero_setup_cdev (struct zero_dev *dev, int minor)//注册字符设备驱动
        {
                int err, devno = MKDEV (usb_zero_major, minor);

     cdev_init(&dev->cdev, &usb_zero_fops);
                dev->cdev.owner = THIS_MODULE;
                err = cdev_add (&dev->cdev, devno, 1);
                if (err)
                   printk ("Error adding usb_rcv\n");
        }

static void zero_setup_complete(struct usb_ep *ep, struct usb_request *req)//配置端点0的请求
完成处理
        {
                   if (req->status || req->actual != req->length)
                      printk("setup complete --> %d, %d/%d\n",
                                      req->status, req->actual, req->length);
        }
        static void zero_reset_config(struct zero_dev *dev) //复位配置
        {
                      usb_ep_disable(dev->out_ep);
                      dev->out_ep = NULL;
        }
        static void zero_disconnect(struct usb_gadget *gadget)//卸载驱动时被调用,做一些注销工作
        {
                   struct zero_dev *dev = get_gadget_data(gadget);
                   unsigned long flags;
                   unregister_chrdev_region (MKDEV (usb_zero_major, 0), 1);
                   cdev_del (&(dev->cdev));
                   zero_reset_config(dev);
                   printk("in %s\n",__FUNCTION__);
        }

static int config_buf(struct usb_gadget *gadget,
                      u8 *buf, u8 type, unsigned index)
        {
                   //int is_source_sink;
                   int len;
                   const struct usb_descriptor_header **function;
                   int hs = 0;
                   function =fs_loopback_function;//根据fs_loopback_function,得到长度,
                                                         //此处len=配置(9)+1个接口(9)+1个端点(7)=25
                   len = usb_gadget_config_buf(&loopback_config,
                                      buf, USB_BUFSIZ, function);
                   if (len < 0)
                                      return len;
                   ((struct usb_config_descriptor *) buf)->bDescriptorType = type;
                   return len;
        }

static int set_loopback_config(struct zero_dev *dev)
        {
                int result = 0;
                struct usb_ep *ep;
                struct usb_gadget *gadget = dev->gadget;
                ep=dev->out_ep;
                const struct usb_endpoint_descriptor *d;
                d = &fs_sink_desc;
                result = usb_ep_enable(ep, d); //激活端点
                //printk("");
                if (result == 0) {
                                printk("connected\n"); //如果成功,打印“connected”
                } 
                else
                                printk("can't enable %s, result %d\n", ep->name, result);
                return result;
        }
        static int zero_set_config(struct zero_dev *dev, unsigned number)
        {
                int result = 0;
                struct usb_gadget *gadget = dev->gadget;
                result = set_loopback_config(dev);//激活设备
                if (result)
                        zero_reset_config(dev); //复位设备
                else {
                        char *speed;

switch (gadget->speed) {
                        case USB_SPEED_LOW: speed = "low"; break;
                        case USB_SPEED_FULL: speed = "full"; break;
                        case USB_SPEED_HIGH: speed = "high"; break;
                        default: speed = " "; break;
                        }
                }
                return result;
        }
        /***
        zero_setup完成USB设置阶段和具体功能相关的交互部分
        ***/
        static int
        zero_setup(struct usb_gadget *gadget, const struct usb_ctrlrequest *ctrl)
        {
                struct zero_dev *dev = get_gadget_data(gadget);
                struct usb_request *req = dev->req;
                int value = -EOPNOTSUPP;
                u16 w_index = le16_to_cpu(ctrl->wIndex);
                u16 w_value = le16_to_cpu(ctrl->wValue);
                u16 w_length = le16_to_cpu(ctrl->wLength);

/* usually this stores reply data in the pre-allocated ep0 buffer,
                   * but config change events will reconfigure hardware.
                   */
                req->zero = 0;

switch (ctrl->bRequest) {
                case USB_REQ_GET_DESCRIPTOR: //获取描述符
                        if (ctrl->bRequestType != USB_DIR_IN)
                               goto unknown;
                        switch (w_value >> 8) {
                        case USB_DT_DEVICE: //获取设备描述符
                                value = min(w_length, (u16) sizeof device_desc);
                                memcpy(req->buf, &device_desc, value);
                                break;
                        case USB_DT_CONFIG: //获取配置,注意:会根据fs_loopback_function读取到接口、端点描述符,注意通过config_buf完成读取数据及数量的统计。
                                value = config_buf(gadget, req->buf,
                                                w_value >> 8,
                                                w_value & 0xff);
                                if (value >= 0)
                                        value = min(w_length, (u16) value);
                                break;

case USB_DT_STRING:
                                value = usb_gadget_get_string(&stringtab,
                                                w_value & 0xff, req->buf);
                                if (value >= 0)
                                        value = min(w_length, (u16) value);
                                break;
                        }
                        break;

case USB_REQ_SET_CONFIGURATION:
                        if (ctrl->bRequestType != 0)
                                goto unknown;
                        spin_lock(&dev->lock);
                        value = zero_set_config(dev, w_value);//激活相应的端点
                        spin_unlock(&dev->lock);
                        break;

default:
        unknown:
                        printk(
                                "unknown control req%02x.%02x v%04x i%04x l%d\n",
                                ctrl->bRequestType, ctrl->bRequest,
                                w_value, w_index, w_length);
                  }
                  /* respond with data transfer before status phase */
                  if (value >= 0) {
                        req->length = value;
                        req->zero = value < w_length;
                        value = usb_ep_queue(gadget->ep0, req, GFP_ATOMIC);//通过端点0完成setup
                        if (value < 0) {
                                       printk("ep_queue --> %d\n", value);
                                       req->status = 0;
                                       zero_setup_complete(gadget->ep0, req);
                        }
                  }
                  /* device either stalls (value < 0) or reports success */
                  return value;
        }
        static void zero_unbind(struct usb_gadget *gadget) //解除绑定
        {
                struct zero_dev *dev = get_gadget_data(gadget);

printk("unbind\n");
                unregister_chrdev_region (MKDEV (usb_zero_major, 0), 1);
                cdev_del (&(dev->cdev));
                /* we've already been disconnected ... no i/o is active */
                if (dev->req) {
                        dev->req->length = USB_BUFSIZ;
                        free_ep_req(gadget->ep0, dev->req);
                }
                kfree(dev);
                set_gadget_data(gadget, NULL);
        }
        static int __init zero_bind(struct usb_gadget *gadget) //绑定过程 
        {
                struct zero_dev *dev;
                struct usb_ep *ep;
                int gcnum;
                usb_ep_autoconfig_reset(gadget);
                ep = usb_ep_autoconfig(gadget, &fs_sink_desc);//根据端点描述符及控制器端点情况,分配一个合适的端点。
                if (!ep)
                        goto enomem;
                EP_OUT_NAME = ep->name; //记录名称
                gcnum = usb_gadget_controller_number(gadget);//获得控制器代号
                if (gcnum >= 0)
                        device_desc.bcdDevice = cpu_to_le16(0x0200 + gcnum);//赋值设备描述符
                else {
                        pr_warning("%s: controller '%s' not recognized\n",
                              shortname, gadget->name);
                        device_desc.bcdDevice = __constant_cpu_to_le16(0x9999);
        }
        dev = kzalloc(sizeof(*dev), GFP_KERNEL); //分配设备结构体
        if (!dev)
                return -ENOMEM;
        spin_lock_init(&dev->lock);
        dev->gadget = gadget;
        set_gadget_data(gadget, dev);
        dev->req = usb_ep_alloc_request(gadget->ep0, GFP_KERNEL);//分配一个请求
        if (!dev->req)
                goto enomem;
        dev->req->buf = kmalloc(USB_BUFSIZ, GFP_KERNEL);
        if (!dev->req->buf)
                goto enomem;
        dev->req->complete = zero_setup_complete;
        dev->out_ep=ep; //记录端点(就是接收host端数据的端点)
        printk("name=%s\n",dev->out_ep->name); //打印出这个端点的名称
        ep->driver_data=dev;
        device_desc.bMaxPacketSize0 = gadget->ep0->maxpacket;
        usb_gadget_set_selfpowered(gadget);
        gadget->ep0->driver_data = dev;
        snprintf(manufacturer, sizeof manufacturer, "%s %s with %s",
                init_utsname()->sysname, init_utsname()->release,
        gadget->name);
/**************************字符设备注册*******************/
        dev_t usb_zero_dev = MKDEV (usb_zero_major, 0); 
        int result = register_chrdev_region (usb_zero_dev, 1, "usb_zero");
        if (result < 0)
        {
                printk (KERN_NOTICE "Unable to get usb_transfer region, error %d\n",result);
                return 0;
        }
        usb_zero_setup_cdev (dev, 0); 
        return 0;
    enomem:
        zero_unbind(gadget);
        return -ENOMEM;
    }
/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
        static struct usb_gadget_driver zero_driver = { //gadget驱动的核心数据结构
        #ifdef CONFIG_USB_GADGET_DUALSPEED
                        .speed = USB_SPEED_HIGH,
        #else
                        .speed = USB_SPEED_FULL,
        #endif
                        .function = (char *) longname,
                        .bind = zero_bind,
                        .unbind = __exit_p(zero_unbind),
                        .setup = zero_setup,
                        .disconnect = zero_disconnect,
                        //.suspend = zero_suspend, //不考虑电源管理的功能 
                        //.resume = zero_resume,
                        .driver = {
                                .name = (char *) shortname,
                                .owner = THIS_MODULE,
                        },
        };
        MODULE_AUTHOR("David Brownell");
        MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
        static int __init init(void)
        {
                return usb_gadget_register_driver(&zero_driver); //注册驱动,调用bind绑定到控制器 
        }
        module_init(init);

static void __exit cleanup(void)
        {
                usb_gadget_unregister_driver(&zero_driver); //注销驱动,通常会调用到unbind解除绑定, //在s3c2410_udc.c中调用的是disconnect方法 
        }
        module_exit(cleanup);

三、总结

    时间关系,上面的代码没有做太多的优化,但功能都是测试通过。希望能给大家的学习提供一点帮助。最后想谈谈学习USB驱动的一些方法。 
    USB驱动比较难掌握,主要原因是:

    复杂的USB协议,包括USB基本协议、类规范等

    控制器包括主机端、设备端。控制器本身相对复杂,其对应的主、从控制器驱动比较复杂

    Hub功能及驱动、管理程序比较复杂

    需要专业的硬件测试工具,硬件信号调试较困难

    主、从端上层驱动程序本身不难,但由于对硬件不理解,及不好编写测试程序。所以往往望而却步。 我觉得学习USB驱动前应该有一个比较好的思路,个人建议可以按下面的过程学习

    熟悉USB协议。不用看完所有的协议,重点关注一些概念、配置过程及数据包格式

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