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分类: LINUX

2012-02-20 17:35:26

安装根文件系统式系统初始化的关键部分。Linux内核允许根文件系统放在很多不同的地方,比如硬盘分区、软盘、通过NFS共享的远程文件系统以及保存在ramdisk中。内核要在变量ROOT_DEV中寻找包含根文件系统的磁盘主设备号。当编译内核时,或者像最初的启动装入程序传递一个合适的“root”选项时,根文件系统可以被指定为/dev目录下的一个设备文件。
相关阅读:

http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2012-02/53771.htm

安装根文件系统分为两个阶段:

1,内核安装特殊rootfs文件系统,该文件系统仅提供一个作为初始安装点的空目录

start_kernel()->vfs_caches_init()->mnt_init()->init_rootfs()

[cpp]
/*初始化根文件系统*/  
int __init init_rootfs(void)  
{  
    int err;  
    /*初始化ramfs_backing_dev_info*/  
    err = bdi_init(&ramfs_backing_dev_info);  
    if (err)  
        return err;  
    /*注册rootfs_fs_type文件类型*/  
    err = register_filesystem(&rootfs_fs_type);  
    if (err)/*如果出错,销毁上面初始化的*/  
        bdi_destroy(&ramfs_backing_dev_info);  
  
    return err;  

[cpp]
static struct backing_dev_info ramfs_backing_dev_info = {  
    .name       = "ramfs",  
    .ra_pages   = 0,    /* No readahead */  
    .capabilities   = BDI_CAP_NO_ACCT_AND_WRITEBACK |  
              BDI_CAP_MAP_DIRECT | BDI_CAP_MAP_COPY |  
              BDI_CAP_READ_MAP | BDI_CAP_WRITE_MAP | BDI_CAP_EXEC_MAP,  
}; 
[cpp]
/** 
 *  register_filesystem - register a new filesystem 
 *  @fs: the file system structure 
 * 
 *  Adds the file system passed to the list of file systems the kernel 
 *  is aware of for mount and other syscalls. Returns 0 on success, 
 *  or a negative errno code on an error. 
 * 
 *  The &struct file_system_type that is passed is linked into the kernel  
 *  structures and must not be freed until the file system has been 
 *  unregistered. 
 */  
 /*注册一个新的文件系统*/  
int register_filesystem(struct file_system_type * fs)  
{  
    int res = 0;  
    struct file_system_type ** p;  
  
    BUG_ON(strchr(fs->name, '.'));  
    if (fs->next)  
        return -EBUSY;  
    INIT_LIST_HEAD(&fs->fs_supers);  
    write_lock(&file_systems_lock);  
    /*从system_type链表中查找指定名称的file_system_type*/  
    p = find_filesystem(fs->name, strlen(fs->name));  
    if (*p)  
        res = -EBUSY;  
    else  
        *p = fs;  
    write_unlock(&file_systems_lock);  
    return res;  

根文件系统定义如下

[cpp]
static struct file_system_type rootfs_fs_type = {  
    .name       = "rootfs",  
    .get_sb     = rootfs_get_sb,  
    .kill_sb    = kill_litter_super,  
}; 
下面看看他的两个函数

[cpp]
/*获得根目录的sb*/  
static int rootfs_get_sb(struct file_system_type *fs_type,  
    int flags, const char *dev_name, void *data, struct vfsmount *mnt)  
{  
    return get_sb_nodev(fs_type, flags|MS_NOUSER, data, ramfs_fill_super,  
                mnt);  

[cpp]
int get_sb_nodev(struct file_system_type *fs_type,  
    int flags, void *data,  
    int (*fill_super)(struct super_block *, void *, int),  
    struct vfsmount *mnt)  
{  
    int error;  
    /*获得sb结构*/  
    struct super_block *s = sget(fs_type, NULL, set_anon_super, NULL);  
  
    if (IS_ERR(s))  
        return PTR_ERR(s);  
  
    s->s_flags = flags;  
    /*这里实际调用ramfs_fill_super,对sb结构的属性进行设置*/  
    error = fill_super(s, data, flags & MS_SILENT ? 1 : 0);  
    if (error) {  
        deactivate_locked_super(s);  
        return error;  
    }  
    s->s_flags |= MS_ACTIVE;  
    simple_set_mnt(mnt, s);/*设置mnt和sb关联*/  
    return 0;  

[cpp]
/** 
 *  sget    -   find or create a superblock 
 *  @type:  filesystem type superblock should belong to 
 *  @test:  comparison callback 
 *  @set:   setup callback 
 *  @data:  argument to each of them 
 */  
 /*查找或创建一个sb结构*/  
struct super_block *sget(struct file_system_type *type,  
            int (*test)(struct super_block *,void *),  
            int (*set)(struct super_block *,void *),  
            void *data)  
{  
    struct super_block *s = NULL;  
    struct super_block *old;  
    int err;  
  
retry:  
    spin_lock(&sb_lock);  
    if (test) {  
        list_for_each_entry(old, &type->fs_supers, s_instances) {  
            if (!test(old, data))  
                continue;  
            if (!grab_super(old))  
                goto retry;  
            if (s) {  
                up_write(&s->s_umount);  
                destroy_super(s);  
            }  
            return old;  
        }  
    }  
    if (!s) {/*如果找不到sb,从内存中申请一个*/  
        spin_unlock(&sb_lock);  
        s = alloc_super(type);  
        if (!s)  
            return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);  
        goto retry;  
    }  
          
    err = set(s, data);  
    if (err) {  
        spin_unlock(&sb_lock);  
        up_write(&s->s_umount);  
        destroy_super(s);  
        return ERR_PTR(err);  
    }  
    /*初始化得到的sb结构*/  
    s->s_type = type;  
    strlcpy(s->s_id, type->name, sizeof(s->s_id));  
    /*加入链表尾*/  
    list_add_tail(&s->s_list, &super_blocks);  
    list_add(&s->s_instances, &type->fs_supers);  
    spin_unlock(&sb_lock);  
    get_filesystem(type);  
    return s;  

本篇文章来源于 Linux公社网站(www.linuxidc.com)  原文链接:http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2012-02/53845.htm

[cpp]
/*所有超级块对象都以双向循环链表的形式链接在一起,量表中第一个 
元素用super_blocks变量表示,而超级块对象的s_list字段存放指向链表 
相邻元素的指针*/  
LIST_HEAD(super_blocks); 
[cpp]
/** 
 *  alloc_super -   create new superblock 
 *  @type:  filesystem type superblock should belong to 
 * 
 *  Allocates and initializes a new &struct super_block.  alloc_super() 
 *  returns a pointer new superblock or %NULL if allocation had failed. 
 */  
static struct super_block *alloc_super(struct file_system_type *type)  
{     
    /*从内存中申请sb*/  
    struct super_block *s = kzalloc(sizeof(struct super_block),  GFP_USER);  
    static const struct super_operations default_op;  
  
    if (s) {  
        if (security_sb_alloc(s)) {  
            kfree(s);  
            s = NULL;  
            goto out;  
        }  
        /*初始化*/  
        INIT_LIST_HEAD(&s->s_files);  
        INIT_LIST_HEAD(&s->s_instances);  
        INIT_HLIST_HEAD(&s->s_anon);  
        INIT_LIST_HEAD(&s->s_inodes);  
        INIT_LIST_HEAD(&s->s_dentry_lru);  
        init_rwsem(&s->s_umount);  
        mutex_init(&s->s_lock);  
        lockdep_set_class(&s->s_umount, &type->s_umount_key);  
        /* 
         * The locking rules for s_lock are up to the 
         * filesystem. For example ext3fs has different 
         * lock ordering than usbfs: 
         */  
        lockdep_set_class(&s->s_lock, &type->s_lock_key);  
        /* 
         * sget() can have s_umount recursion. 
         * 
         * When it cannot find a suitable sb, it allocates a new 
         * one (this one), and tries again to find a suitable old 
         * one. 
         * 
         * In case that succeeds, it will acquire the s_umount 
         * lock of the old one. Since these are clearly distrinct 
         * locks, and this object isn't exposed yet, there's no 
         * risk of deadlocks. 
         * 
         * Annotate this by putting this lock in a different 
         * subclass. 
         */  
        down_write_nested(&s->s_umount, SINGLE_DEPTH_NESTING);  
        s->s_count = S_BIAS;  
        atomic_set(&s->s_active, 1);  
        mutex_init(&s->s_vfs_rename_mutex);  
        mutex_init(&s->s_dquot.dqio_mutex);  
        mutex_init(&s->s_dquot.dqonoff_mutex);  
        init_rwsem(&s->s_dquot.dqptr_sem);  
        init_waitqueue_head(&s->s_wait_unfrozen);  
        s->s_maxbytes = MAX_NON_LFS;  
        s->dq_op = sb_dquot_ops;  
        s->s_qcop = sb_quotactl_ops;  
        s->s_op = &default_op;  
        s->s_time_gran = 1000000000;  
    }  
out:  
    return s;  

kill_litter_super的过程相反,这里不再写了。

构造根目录是由init_mount_tree()函数实现的,该函数在前面已经介绍过了。


本篇文章来源于 Linux公社网站(www.linuxidc.com)  原文链接:http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2012-02/53845p2.htm

2,安装实际根文件系统

关于__setup宏

__setup宏来注册关键字及相关联的处理函数,__setup宏在include/linux/init.h中定义,其原型如下:

__setup(string, _handler);
其中:string是关键字,_handler是关联处理函数。__setup只是告诉内核在启动时输入串中含有string时,内核要去
执行_handler。String必须以“=”符结束以使parse_args更方便解析。紧随“=”后的任何文本都会作为输入传给
_handler。下面的例子来自于init/do_mounts.c,其中root_dev_setup作为处理程序被注册给“root=”关键字:
 __setup("root=", root_dev_setup);

比如我们在启动向参数终有

  noinitrd root=/dev/mtdblock2 console=/linuxrc

 setup_arch解释时会发现root=/dev/mtdblock2,然后它就会调用root_dev_setup

[cpp]
static int __init root_dev_setup(char *line)  
{  
    strlcpy(saved_root_name, line, sizeof(saved_root_name));  
    return 1;  
}  
  
__setup("root=", root_dev_setup); 

Start_kernel->rest_init->init-> prepare_namespace->

[cpp]
/* 
 * Prepare the namespace - decide what/where to mount, load ramdisks, etc. 
 */  
void __init prepare_namespace(void)  
{  
    int is_floppy;  
  
    if (root_delay) {  
        printk(KERN_INFO "Waiting %dsec before mounting root device...\n",  
               root_delay);  
        ssleep(root_delay);  
    }  
  
    /* 
     * wait for the known devices to complete their probing 
     * 
     * Note: this is a potential source of long boot delays. 
     * For example, it is not atypical to wait 5 seconds here 
     * for the touchpad of a laptop to initialize. 
     */  
    wait_for_device_probe();  
    /*创建/dev/ram0,必须得,因为initrd要放到/dev/ram0里*/  
    md_run_setup();  
  
    if (saved_root_name[0]) {/*saved_root_name为从启动参数"root"中获取的设备文件名*/  
        root_device_name = saved_root_name;  
        if (!strncmp(root_device_name, "mtd", 3) ||  
            !strncmp(root_device_name, "ubi", 3)) {/*如果设备名开头为这两个*/  
            mount_block_root(root_device_name, root_mountflags);  
            goto out;  
        }  
        /*主设备号和次设备号*/  
        ROOT_DEV = name_to_dev_t(root_device_name);  
        if (strncmp(root_device_name, "/dev/", 5) == 0)  
            root_device_name += 5;/*滤掉'/dev/'字符*/  
    }  
  
    if (initrd_load())  
        goto out;  
  
    /* wait for any asynchronous scanning to complete */  
    if ((ROOT_DEV == 0) && root_wait) {  
        printk(KERN_INFO "Waiting for root device %s...\n",  
            saved_root_name);  
        while (driver_probe_done() != 0 ||  
            (ROOT_DEV = name_to_dev_t(saved_root_name)) == 0)  
            msleep(100);  
        async_synchronize_full();  
    }  
  
    is_floppy = MAJOR(ROOT_DEV) == FLOPPY_MAJOR;  
  
    if (is_floppy && rd_doload && rd_load_disk(0))  
        ROOT_DEV = Root_RAM0;  
    /*实际操作*/  
    mount_root();  
out:  
    devtmpfs_mount("dev");/*devfs从虚拟的根文件系统的/dev umount*/  
    sys_mount(".", "/", NULL, MS_MOVE, NULL);/*将挂载点从当前目录【/root】(在mount_root函数中设置的)移到根目录*/  
    /*当前目录即【/root】(真正文件系统挂载的目录)做为系统根目录*/  
    sys_chroot(".");  

本篇文章来源于 Linux公社网站(www.linuxidc.com)  原文链接:http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2012-02/53845p3.htm

 

mount_root操作

[cpp]
void __init mount_root(void)  
{  
#ifdef CONFIG_ROOT_NFS   
    if (MAJOR(ROOT_DEV) == UNNAMED_MAJOR) {  
        if (mount_nfs_root())  
            return;  
  
        printk(KERN_ERR "VFS: Unable to mount root fs via NFS, trying floppy.\n");  
        ROOT_DEV = Root_FD0;  
    }  
#endif   
#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_FD   
    if (MAJOR(ROOT_DEV) == FLOPPY_MAJOR) {  
        /* rd_doload is 2 for a dual initrd/ramload setup */  
        if (rd_doload==2) {  
            if (rd_load_disk(1)) {  
                ROOT_DEV = Root_RAM1;  
                root_device_name = NULL;  
            }  
        } else  
            change_floppy("root floppy");  
    }  
#endif   
#ifdef CONFIG_BLOCK/*这里是一般流程*/   
    create_dev("/dev/root", ROOT_DEV);/*用系统调用创建"/dev/root"*/  
    mount_block_root("/dev/root", root_mountflags);  
#endif   

[cpp]
void __init mount_block_root(char *name, int flags)  
{  
    /*从cache中分配空间*/  
    char *fs_names = __getname_gfp(GFP_KERNEL  
        | __GFP_NOTRACK_FALSE_POSITIVE);  
    char *p;  
#ifdef CONFIG_BLOCK   
    char b[BDEVNAME_SIZE];  
#else   
    const char *b = name;  
#endif   
    /*获得文件系统类型,如果在bootoption里有, 
    则就为这个文件系统类型,如果没有指定, 
    则返回ilesytem链上所有类型,下面再对每个进行尝试.*/  
    get_fs_names(fs_names);  
retry:  
    for (p = fs_names; *p; p += strlen(p)+1) {  
        /*实际的安装工作,这里调用了mount系统调用 
        将文件系统挂到/root目录,p为文件系统类型,由get_fs_names得到 
        */  
        int err = do_mount_root(name, p, flags, root_mount_data);  
        switch (err) {  
            case 0:  
                goto out;  
            case -EACCES:  
                flags |= MS_RDONLY;  
                goto retry;  
            case -EINVAL:  
                continue;  
        }  
            /* 
         * Allow the user to distinguish between failed sys_open 
         * and bad superblock on root device. 
         * and give them a list of the available devices 
         */  
#ifdef CONFIG_BLOCK   
        __bdevname(ROOT_DEV, b);  
#endif   
        printk("VFS: Cannot open root device \"%s\" or %s\n",  
                root_device_name, b);  
        printk("Please append a correct \"root=\" boot option; here are the available partitions:\n");  
  
        printk_all_partitions();  
#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_BLOCK_EXT_DEVT   
        printk("DEBUG_BLOCK_EXT_DEVT is enabled, you need to specify "  
               "explicit textual name for \"root=\" boot option.\n");  
#endif   
        panic("VFS: Unable to mount root fs on %s", b);  
    }  
  
    printk("List of all partitions:\n");  
    printk_all_partitions();  
    printk("No filesystem could mount root, tried: ");  
    for (p = fs_names; *p; p += strlen(p)+1)  
        printk(" %s", p);  
    printk("\n");  
#ifdef CONFIG_BLOCK   
    __bdevname(ROOT_DEV, b);  
#endif   
    panic("VFS: Unable to mount root fs on %s", b);  
out:  
    putname(fs_names);  
}  
  
[cpp]
static int __init do_mount_root(char *name, char *fs, int flags, void *data)  
{  
    /*mount系统调用来做实际的安装文件系统工作*/  
    int err = sys_mount(name, "/root", fs, flags, data);  
    if (err)  
        return err;  
    /*改变当前路径到根目录*/  
    sys_chdir("/root");  
    ROOT_DEV = current->fs->pwd.mnt->mnt_sb->s_dev;  
    printk("VFS: Mounted root (%s filesystem)%s on device %u:%u.\n",  
           current->fs->pwd.mnt->mnt_sb->s_type->name,  
           current->fs->pwd.mnt->mnt_sb->s_flags & MS_RDONLY ?  
           " readonly" : "", MAJOR(ROOT_DEV), MINOR(ROOT_DEV));  
    return 0;  

到此,根文件系统的安装过程算是完成了,中间关于mount等系统调用将在后面分析。可以看出总的步骤主要有:

1,创建一个rootfs,这个是虚拟的rootfs,是内存文件系统(和ramfs),后面还会指向具体的根文件系统;

2,从系统启动参数中获取设备文件名以及设备号;

3,调用系统调用创建符号链接,并调用mount系统调用进程实际的安装操作;

4,改变进程当前目录;

5,移动rootfs文件系统根目录上得已经安装文件系统的安装点;
rootfs特殊文件系统没有被卸载,他只是隐藏在基于磁盘的根文件系统下了。


本篇文章来源于 Linux公社网站(www.linuxidc.com)  原文链接:http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2012-02/53845p4.htm

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