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分类: Oracle

2016-12-08 17:01:26

Oralce导入数据时提示ORA-12899错误value too large for column

www.111cn.net 更新:2013-11-21 编辑:future 来源:转载
今天在把以前备份的数据导入到oracle时,发现提示 ORA-12899错误value too large for column了,这个就是数据太大的问题,下面我来把解决过程与各位同学分享一下。

从生产导出数据到测试,出现如下错误

ORA-02374: conversion error loading table "SWTONLINE"."TBL_TRANS_LOG_HISTORY_B"
ORA-12899: value too large for column MER_ADDR_NAME (actual: 54, maximum: 40)

初步估计为字符集差异导致.中文在UTF-8里占3个字节,ZHS16GBK里占2个字节

查看测试库字符集

 代码如下 复制代码

sys@PROD>select * from V$NLS_PARAMETERS
  2  ;

PARAMETER                                                        VALUE
---------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------
NLS_LANGUAGE                                                     SIMPLIFIED CHINESE
NLS_TERRITORY                                                    CHINA
NLS_CURRENCY                                                     ¥
NLS_ISO_CURRENCY                                                 CHINA
NLS_NUMERIC_CHARACTERS                                           .,
NLS_CALENDAR                                                     GREGORIAN
NLS_DATE_FORMAT                                                  DD-MON-RR
NLS_DATE_LANGUAGE                                                SIMPLIFIED CHINESE
NLS_CHARACTERSET                                                 AL32UTF8
NLS_SORT                                                         BINARY
NLS_TIME_FORMAT                                                  HH.MI.SSXFF AM
NLS_TIMESTAMP_FORMAT                                             DD-MON-RR HH.MI.SSXFF AM
NLS_TIME_TZ_FORMAT                                               HH.MI.SSXFF AM TZR
NLS_TIMESTAMP_TZ_FORMAT                                          DD-MON-RR HH.MI.SSXFF AM TZR
NLS_DUAL_CURRENCY                                                ¥
NLS_NCHAR_CHARACTERSET                                           AL16UTF16
NLS_COMP                                                         BINARY
NLS_LENGTH_SEMANTICS                                             BYTE
NLS_NCHAR_CONV_EXCP                                              FALSE

19 rows selected.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00

查看生产库字符集

 代码如下 复制代码

sys@ORADB>select * from V$NLS_PARAMETERS;

PARAMETER                                                        VALUE
---------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------
NLS_LANGUAGE                                                     AMERICAN
NLS_TERRITORY                                                    AMERICA
NLS_CURRENCY                                                     $
NLS_ISO_CURRENCY                                                 AMERICA
NLS_NUMERIC_CHARACTERS                                           .,
NLS_CALENDAR                                                     GREGORIAN
NLS_DATE_FORMAT                                                  DD-MON-RR
NLS_DATE_LANGUAGE                                                AMERICAN
NLS_CHARACTERSET                                                 ZHS16GBK
NLS_SORT                                                         BINARY
NLS_TIME_FORMAT                                                  HH.MI.SSXFF AM
NLS_TIMESTAMP_FORMAT                                             DD-MON-RR HH.MI.SSXFF AM
NLS_TIME_TZ_FORMAT                                               HH.MI.SSXFF AM TZR
NLS_TIMESTAMP_TZ_FORMAT                                          DD-MON-RR HH.MI.SSXFF AM TZR
NLS_DUAL_CURRENCY                                                $
NLS_NCHAR_CHARACTERSET                                           AL16UTF16
NLS_COMP                                                         BINARY
NLS_LENGTH_SEMANTICS                                             BYTE
NLS_NCHAR_CONV_EXCP                                              FALSE

19 rows selected.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00

更改测试库的字符集和生产库一样

 代码如下 复制代码

sys@PROD>SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE;
Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.
sys@PROD>STARTUP MOUNT
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area  939495424 bytes
Fixed Size                  2233960 bytes
Variable Size             671091096 bytes
Database Buffers          260046848 bytes
Redo Buffers                6123520 bytes
Database mounted.
sys@PROD>ALTER SYSTEM ENABLE RESTRICTED SESSION;

System altered.

Elapsed: 00:00:02.19
sys@PROD>ALTER SYSTEM SET JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES=0;

System altered.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.02
sys@PROD>ALTER SYSTEM SET AQ_TM_PROCESSES=0;

System altered.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.01
sys@PROD>ALTER DATABASE OPEN;

Database altered.

Elapsed: 00:00:05.09
sys@PROD>ALTER DATABASE ?CHARACTER SET ZHS16GBK ;
ALTER DATABASE ?CHARACTER SET ZHS16GBK
               *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00911: 无效字符


Elapsed: 00:00:00.00

---报字符集不兼容,此时用INTERNAL_USE指令不对字符集超集进行检查

 代码如下 复制代码

sys@PROD>ALTER DATABASE CHARACTER SET INTERNAL_USE ZHS16GBK;


Database altered.

Elapsed: 00:00:53.35
SQL>SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
SQL>STARTUP

重新启动数据库,再次导入,即可成功.

 代码如下 复制代码

[oracle@idata ~]$  impdp  '/ as sysdba ' directory=backup dumpfile=cil_20130702.dmp logfile=cil_20130703.log table_exists_action=replace schemas=EPAYMENT,LOGSDB,PREPAID,RISK,SWTSETTLE,SWTONLINE

补充一下oracle字符编码问题

通常会查询NLS_CHARACTERSET(数据库字符集),NLS_NCHAR_CHARACTERSET(国家字符集),应该要存储多种语言,需要字符集为UTF-8。

 代码如下 复制代码
SELECT * FROM V$NLS_PARAMETERS WHERE PARAMETER IN ('NLS_CHARACTERSET', 'NLS_NCHAR_CHARACTERSET');

 
结果UTF-8,OK。
 
查看没问题的DB里 FieldA varchar2(10 char)
 
查看有问题的DB里 FieldA varchar2(10)
 
(没出现问题之前还真没注意到这两种定义是有区别的。。。)
 
UTF-8里一个中文字符是3 bytes,从上面的定义可以看出来,如果char/byte 定义导致的可存储数据长度相差很大了。
 
设置参数NLS_LENGTH_SEMANTICS可以在create table时对CHAR 或者VARCHAR2列指定使用字节(byte)或者字符(character)来定义长度。
 
NCHAR, NVARCHAR2, CLOB, and NCLOB 列都是基于字符(character)的。
 
NLS_LENGTH_SEMANTICS不会影响到SYS和SYSTEM用户表,数据字典定义都使用字节(byte)。
 
可以在定义列时候显示指定使用字节(byte)或者字符(character)来定义长度:
 
CHAR(10 BYTE)  - 无论NLS_LENGTH_SEMANTICS设置成什么,都使用字节(byte)。
 
CHAR(10 CHAR) - 无论NLS_LENGTH_SEMANTICS设置成什么,都使用字符(char)。

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