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分类: LINUX

2016-05-06 13:18:49

Travel chain order:
    

Each rule in a chain contains the specification of which packets it matches. It may also contain a target (used for extensions) or verdict (one of the built-in decisions). As a packet traverses a chain, each rule in turn is examined. If a rule does not match the packet, the packet is passed to the next rule. If a rule does match the packet, the rule takes the action indicated by the target/verdict, which may result in the packet being allowed to continue along the chain or it may not. Matches make up the large part of rulesets, as they contain the conditions packets are tested for. These can happen for about any layer in the OSI model, as with e.g. the --mac-source and -p tcp --dport parameters, and there are also protocol-independent matches, such as -m time.

The packet continues to traverse the chain until either

  1. a rule matches the packet and decides the ultimate fate of the packet, for example by calling one of the ACCEPT or DROP, or a module returning such an ultimate fate; or
  2. a rule calls the RETURN verdict, in which case processing returns to the calling chain; or
  3. the end of the chain is reached; traversal either continues in the parent chain (as if RETURN was used), or the base chain policy, which is an ultimate fate, is used.

Targets also return a verdict like ACCEPT (NAT modules will do this) or DROP (e.g. the REJECT module), but may also imply CONTINUE (e.g. the LOG module; CONTINUE is an internal name) to continue with the next rule as if no target/verdict was specified at all.

As we have already stated in this chapter, conntrack and the state machine is rather resource hungry. For this reason, it might sometimes be a good idea to turn off connection tracking and the state machine.

One example would be if you have a heavily trafficked router that you want to firewall the incoming and outgoing traffic on, but not the routed traffic. You could then set the NOTRACK mark on all packets not destined for the firewall itself by ACCEPT'ing all packets with destination your host in the raw table, and then set the NOTRACK for all other traffic. This would then allow you to have stateful matching on incoming traffic for the router itself, but at the same time save processing power from not handling all the crossing traffic.

Another example when NOTRACK can be used is if you have a highly trafficked webserver and want to do stateful tracking, but don't want to waste processing power on tracking the web traffic. You could then set up a rule that turns of tracking for port 80 on all the locally owned IP addresses, or the ones that are actually serving web traffic. You could then enjoy statefull tracking on all other services, except for webtraffic which might save some processing power on an already overloaded system.

There is however some problems with NOTRACK that you must take into consideration. If a whole connection is set with NOTRACK, then you will not be able to track related connections either, conntrack and nat helpers will simply not work for untracked connections, nor will related ICMP errors do. You will have to open up for these manually in other words. When it comes to complex protocols such as FTP and SCTP et cetera, this can be very hard to manage. As long as you are aware of this, you should be able to handle this however.


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