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分类: IT职场

2012-02-18 09:44:53

0. Today, UUCP networks are a rarity and new technologies such as wireless networks are becoming ubiquitous!
rarity ['rerəti] 
n.稀有, 珍品, 稀薄 
ubiquitous [ju:'bikwətəs] adj.到处存在的, 随处可见的

1. Virtually every operating system (OS) provides numerous network-aware applications such as Web browsers, email clients, and file-sharing servers.(UNPv1_3Edtion_2003Published)
actually  adv.实际上;实在地;确实
Virtually adv.实际上;事实上
我们一般知道 virtual machine (VM),在计算机中是“虚拟机”.  这个单词的意思有点自相矛盾呵呵
Virtual (计算机)虚拟的; 模拟的实质上的, 事实上的, 实际上的, 很接近的, 几乎…的

2. Sockets have been around, more or less in their current form, since the 1980s, and it is a tribute to their initial design that they have continued to be the network API of choice. (UNPv1_3Edtion_2003Published)
tribute          n.贡品, 称赞, 敬意, 礼物明证有力证明 
contribute    vt.捐助, 投稿 vi.投稿, 贡献, 是原因之一
contribution  n.贡献, 捐款(赠) 
provided much of the SCTP material and deserves a special acknowledgment for this much-valued contribution

3. The coverage of the X/Open Transport Interface (XTI) has been dropped. That API has fallen out of common use and even the most recent POSIX specification does not bother to cover it. 
fallen out of v. 停止(不再)
He has fallen out of the habit of drinking.   他已经戒除了喝酒的习惯。

4. Numerous individuals and their organizations went beyond the normal call of duty to provide either a loaner system, software, or access to a system, all of which were used to test some of the examples in the text. 
非义务地 / 自愿地 提供了帮助

5. In a trend that Rich Stevens instituted (but contrary to popular fads), we produced camera-ready copy of the book using the wonderful Groff package.
Rich Stevens 倾向于(喜欢)用groff包(但是与一般流行的做法不同/相反)来制作(处理)本书
institute  n.学院, 学会, 协会, 研究所 vt.开始;制定;创立;实行 
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

6. A set of awk scripts written by Jon Bentley and Brian Kernighan helped in producing the final index. 

7. Before delving into the design details of a protocol, high-level decisions must be made about which program is expected to initiate communication and when responses are expected.
delve vi.探究, 挖掘, 搜索 
She delved in her bag and pulled out a pen.   她在提包里翻找,拿出一枝钢笔。

8. Deciding that the client always initiates requests tends to simplify the protocol as well as the programs themselves. 

Deciding that 的这种用法很常见,大致可以翻译为:“因为” (因为这样能够达到某某效果,所以就Deciding that决定这么干)
sb/sth tend to do sth 趋向, 易于    Does he tend to lose?   他常常输吗? (区分trend 和 tend)

9. We start with a complete example of a TCP client, albeit a simple one, that demonstrates many of the function calls and concepts that we will encounter throughout the text. 
albeit [ɔ:l'bi:it] conj.虽然, 即使, 尽管 (short for "all be it"?! 尽管/即使/虽然 所有的都是这样的all be it, 但是/却...)

10. Throughout the text, we will use indented, parenthetical notes such as this to describe implementation details and historical points.
indent ['indent,in'dent]  v.缩进, 定货 (在Python中要缩进来指定 code block)
parenthetical  [ˌpærən'θetikəl]adj. 括号中的, 插入的, 作为附带说明的=parenthetic
parenthesis [pə'renθəsis] .圆括号, 插入语 (= parent + thesis 毕业论文, 论文, 论题, 论点, 命题)

11. The set of parentheses around the function call and assignment is required, given the precedence rules of C (the less-than operator has a higher precedence than assignment). 
precedence [pre'si:dəns] n. 优先,  居先,  领先  precedence rules 运算符优先级规则
precede[pri:'si:d] vt.在 ... 之前, 先于vi.在前面, 领先
In the preceding paragraph, we referred to a function named socket that is part of the sockets API. 

12. 程序中常用标点符号的英文:
comma  ['kɔmə]  n.逗号, 停顿, 间歇
colon  ['kəulən]   n.冒号, 结肠
parenthesis [pə'renθəsis] n.圆括号, 插入语
asterisk ['æstəˌrisk] n. 星号(*)  When we specify the local IP address as an asterisk, it is called the wildcard character. 

13. As a matter of coding style, the authors always place a space between the two opening parentheses, as a visual indicator that the left-hand side of the comparison is also an assignment.
形如 while((i = ... ) < ) 的代码总是写成: while( (i = ...) < ),在两个左括号之间放进一个空格

14. The important concept here is that TCP itself provides no record markers: If an application wants to delineate the ends of records, it must do so itself and there are a few common ways to accomplish this. 
delineate [di'liniˌeit] vt. 描绘,  叙述, 画出

15. With careful C coding, we could use macros instead of functions, providing a little run-time efficiency, but these wrapper functions are rarely the performance bottleneck of a program.
bottleneck ['bɔtəlˌnek] n.瓶颈 v.阻塞,妨碍 adj.狭窄的

16. This technique has the side benefit of checking for errors from functions whose error returns are often ignored: close and listen, for example.
side benefit 附带好处
side effect   副作用

17. Two client/server examples are used predominantly throughout the text to illustrate the various techniques used in network programming.
predominant [pri'dɔmənənt] adj. 主要的,  占优势的, 显著的 
dominant     ['dɔmənənt]      adj. 主要的, 占优势的, 显性的 n.主宰者, 显性基因 

18. This is a seven-layer model, which we show in Figure 1.14, along with the approximate mapping to the Internet protocol suite. 
approximate [ə'prɔksəmit] adj.近似的, 大约的 v.接近, 约等于(我们经常能在水杯上看到approximatly 400ml 的字样)

19. Unix provides this separation between the user process and the kernel, as do many other contemporary operating systems.  (现代操作系统)
contemporary [kən'tempəˌreri]  adj.同时代的, 当代的 n.同时代的人, 同龄人;  

20. 4.2BSD and 4.4BSD releases from the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) at Berkeley, which required 
the recipient to already have a source code license for Unix.
recipient [ri'sipiənt] n.接受者, 收信人  (这里指 BSD的使用者)

21. The topology shown in Figure 1.16 is interesting for the sake of our examples.
for the sake of 为了 ... (的利益)
topology 拓扑, 拓扑学, 布局  (网络拓扑结构)

22. The notation "/24" indicates the number of consecutive bits starting from the leftmost bit of the address used to identify the network and subnet. Section A.4 will talk about the /n notation used today to designate subnet boundaries. 
consecutive [kən'sekjətiv] adj.连续的, 连贯的  (这里指子网的表示方法,/24表示从IP地址的左边开始的连续24位为子网地址)

23. Although there are no current Unix standards with regard to network configuration and administration, two basic commands are provided by most Unix systems and can be used to discover some details of a network: netstat and ifconfig. 
with regard to 关于,  至于
Certain limits affect the size of IP datagrams. We first describe these limits and then tie them all together with regard to how they affect the data an application can transmit. 

24. The easiest way to acquire a copy of this consolidated standard is to either order it on CD-ROM or access it via the Web (free of charge). 
consolidated  [kən'sɔləˌdeitid] adj.加固的, 整理过的, 统一的 
consolidation n.巩固, 加强, 统一, 合并, 联合
order n.顺序, 条理, 订单, 命令, 秩序, 阶层 v.命令, 定购, 调整,整理, 点餐
The Open Group was formed in 1996 by the consolidation of the X/Open Company (founded in 1984) and the Open Software Foundation (OSF, founded in 1988). It is an international consortium of vendors and end-user customers from industry, government, and academia.   
consortium [kən'sɔ:ʃiəm] n.财团, 联合, 合伙

25. POSIX is an acronym for Portable Operating System Interface.
acronym ['ækrənim]  n.首字母缩略词 
abbreviation [əˌbri:vi'eiʃən] n.缩写 

26. Products conforming to this specification were called "Unix 98."
conforming [kən'fɔ:miŋ]  adj. 遵守(规则、法则等)的 (be conforming to )
conform [kən'fɔ:m] v.使一致, 遵从  (conform to)
comply [kəm'plai] vi.顺从, 遵照, 答应 (comply with)

27. Getting over 50 companies to agree on a single standard is certainly a landmark in the history of Unix. Most Unix systems today conform to some version of POSIX.1 and POSIX.2;many comply with The Single Unix Specification
Version 3. 
landmark ['lændˌmɑ:k] n. 陆标,  地界标,  里程碑,  划时代的事 (= land + mark)

28. The common programming model for existing 32-bit Unix systems is called the ILP32 model, denoting that integers (I), long integers (L), and pointers (P) occupy 32 bits. The model that is becoming most prevalent for 64-bit Unix systems is called the LP64 model, meaning only long integers (L) and pointers (P) require 64 bits. 
denote [di'nəut]  vt.表示, 象征 
We denote the normal client transitions with a darker solid line and the normal server transitions with a darker dashed line

29. These two examples introduce many of the terms and concepts that are expanded on throughout the rest of the book. 
term [tə:m] n.学期, 术语, 条件, 条款, 期限, 名词 vt.把 ... 称为 
terminology [ˌtə:mə'nɔlədʒi]n.术语, 术语学     (这两个单词在技术书籍总经常看到)

30.The Single Unix Specification Version 3, known by several other names and called simply The POSIX Specification by us, is the confluence of two long-running standards efforts, finally drawn together by The Austin Group. 
confluence ['kɔnfluəns]  n.合流, 汇合 
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