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分类: C/C++

2013-09-03 17:58:09

转自  

原创作者:南京邮电大学  通信与信息系统专业 研二 魏清

 

 

三.Backlight核心驱动

下面我们讲讲backlight子系统。背光子系统目录在/driver/video/backlight下,其中背光子系统核心代码是backlight.c

先查看/driver/video/backlight/Makefile

obj-$(CONFIG_BACKLIGHT_CLASS_DEVICE) += backlight.o

继续查看/driver/video/backlight/Kconfig

config BACKLIGHT_CLASS_DEVICE

        tristate "Lowlevel Backlight controls"

       depends on BACKLIGHT_LCD_SUPPORT

       default m

所以配置内核make menuconfig时,需要选中这一项。

 

下面看backlight背光的核心代码backlight.c

static int __init backlight_class_init(void)

{

       backlight_class = class_create(THIS_MODULE, "backlight"); //注册backlight

       if (IS_ERR(backlight_class)) {

              printk(KERN_WARNING "Unable to create backlight class; errno = %ld\n",

                            PTR_ERR(backlight_class));

              return PTR_ERR(backlight_class);

       }

       backlight_class->dev_attrs = bl_device_attributes;  //添加类属性

       backlight_class->suspend = backlight_suspend;

       backlight_class->resume = backlight_resume;

       return 0;

}

我们知道backlight背光子系统的主要就是靠这个类属性,当我们设置背光值就是向类属性中某个成员写背光值,这个类属性就是给用户的一种接口,我们重点看看

#define __ATTR(_name,_mode,_show,_store) { \

       .attr = {.name = __stringify(_name), .mode = _mode },     \

       .show     = _show,                             \

       .store      = _store,                             \

}

static struct device_attribute bl_device_attributes[] = {

       __ATTR(bl_power, 0644, backlight_show_power, backlight_store_power),

       __ATTR(brightness, 0644, backlight_show_brightness,

                   backlight_store_brightness),

       __ATTR(actual_brightness, 0444, backlight_show_actual_brightness,

                   NULL),

       __ATTR(max_brightness, 0444, backlight_show_max_brightness, NULL),

       __ATTR_NULL,

};

很明显,在backlight类中我们创建了bl_powerbrightnessactural_brightnessmax_brightness四个成员,其中brightness是当前亮度,max_brightness是最大亮度。当用户层通过cat或者echo命令就会触发这些成员。对于这些属性的读写函数,我们先看看读的函数backlight_show_max_brightness

static ssize_t backlight_show_max_brightness(struct device *dev,

              struct device_attribute *attr, char *buf)

{

       struct backlight_device *bd = to_backlight_device(dev);

       return sprintf(buf, "%d\n", bd->props.max_brightness);  //输出最大亮度

}

这个函数很简单,但是重点是引入了几个backlight背光子系统的几个重要的数据结构,我们好好学习下。

首先是backlight背光子系统的设备结构体backlight_device

struct backlight_device {

       struct backlight_properties props;  //背光属性

       struct mutex update_lock;

       struct mutex ops_lock;

       struct backlight_ops *ops;    //背光操作函数,类似于file_operations

       struct notifier_block fb_notif;

       struct device dev;  //内嵌设备

};

下面先看看背光属性结构体backlight_properties

struct backlight_properties {

       int brightness;  //当前背光值

       int max_brightness;  //最大背光值

       int power;

       int fb_blank;

       unsigned int state;

};

再看看背光操作函数结构体

struct backlight_ops {

       unsigned int options;

#define BL_CORE_SUSPENDRESUME       (1 << 0)

       int (*update_status)(struct backlight_device *);   //改变背光状态

       int (*get_brightness)(struct backlight_device *);  //获取背光值

       int (*check_fb)(struct fb_info *);

};

好了,我们继续看backlight类属性中写的函数,例如设置当前背光值函数backlight_store_brightness

static ssize_t backlight_store_brightness(struct device *dev,

              struct device_attribute *attr, const char *buf, size_t count)

{

       int rc;

       struct backlight_device *bd = to_backlight_device(dev);

       unsigned long brightness;

       rc = strict_strtoul(buf, 0, &brightness);

       if (rc)

              return rc;

       rc = -ENXIO;

       mutex_lock(&bd->ops_lock);

       if (bd->ops) {

              if (brightness > bd->props.max_brightness)

                     rc = -EINVAL;

              else {

                     pr_debug("backlight: set brightness to %lu\n",

                             brightness);

                     bd->props.brightness =brightness;  //传入背光值

                     backlight_update_status(bd);  //调用backlight_update_status设备背光值

                     rc = count;

              }

       }

       mutex_unlock(&bd->ops_lock);

       backlight_generate_event(bd, BACKLIGHT_UPDATE_SYSFS);

       return rc;

}

跟踪backlight_update_status

static inline void backlight_update_status(struct backlight_device *bd)

{

       mutex_lock(&bd->update_lock);

       if (bd->ops && bd->ops->update_status)

              bd->ops->update_status(bd); //调用背光操作函数中改变背光状态函数update_status

       mutex_unlock(&bd->update_lock);

}

对于这个backlight背光核心层驱动backlight.c,剩下的就是这个pwm.c给我们提供了哪些接口函数了。

struct backlight_device *backlight_device_register(const char *name,

              struct device *parent, void *devdata, struct backlight_ops *ops)

void backlight_device_unregister(struct backlight_device *bd)

EXPORT_SYMBOL(backlight_device_register);  //注册背光设备

EXPORT_SYMBOL(backlight_device_unregister); //注销背光设备

这些接口很简单,就不细说了,这样我们的backlight子系统的核心层就介绍完了。

 

四.基于PWM&Backlight的蜂鸣器驱动

下面我们结合上面的PWM核心层和Backlight背光子系统核心层,根据基于pwm的背光驱动/driver/video/backlight/pwm_bl.c来修改成基于Mini2440的蜂鸣器驱动。

先查看/driver/video/backlight/Makefile

obj-$(CONFIG_BACKLIGHT_PWM)   += pwm_bl.o

继续查看/driver/video/backlight/Kconfig

config BACKLIGHT_PWM

       tristate "Generic PWM based Backlight Driver"

       depends on BACKLIGHT_CLASS_DEVICE && HAVE_PWM

       help

         If you have a LCD backlight adjustable by PWM, say Y to enable

         this driver.

我们的HAVE_PWMBACKLIGHT_CLASS_DEVICE分别是在前面讲pwm核心和backlight核心时已经编译了,所以配置内核make menuconfig 时,需要再选中"Generic PWM based Backlight Driver"这项。

 

好了,我们先把我们的蜂鸣器移植进去吧,首先我们知道蜂鸣器使用的是GPB0端口,该端口如果工作在TOU0模式,就可以通过设备定时器的TCNTTCMP来控制定时器的波形而来。先打开mini2440BSP文件mach-mini2440.c,如下添加

static struct platform_device s3c_backlight_device = {

       .name             = "pwm-backlight",           //设备名

       .dev        = {

              .parent    = &s3c_device_timer[0].dev,  //该设备基于pwm中的0号定时器

              .platform_data = &s3c_backlight_data,

       },

       .id=0,     //对应的就是pwm0

};

添加平台数据

static struct platform_pwm_backlight_data s3c_backlight_data = {

       .pwm_id         = 0,   //对应的就是Timer0

       .max_brightness     = 1000,  //最大亮度

       .dft_brightness       = 10 ,      //当前亮度

       .pwm_period_ns    = 800000,  //这就是前面说的T0,即输出时钟周期

       .init         = s3c_bl_init,  //端口初始化

};

注意到平台数据中定义了init函数,由于在蜂鸣器的初始化时,需要对GPB0设置为TOUT0模式,所以代码如下编写

static int s3c_bl_init(struct device *dev)

{

       s3c2410_gpio_pullup(S3C2410_GPB(0),0);   // GPB0不上拉

       s3c2410_gpio_cfgpin(S3C2410_GPB(0),S3C2410_GPB0_TOUT0); // GPB0设置为TOUT0

       return 0;

}

然后把这个s3c_backlight_device加入到mini2440_devices数组

static struct platform_device *mini2440_devices[] __initdata = {

       ……

       &s3c_device_timer[0],

       &s3c_backlight_device, //添加

};

最后添加头文件

#include

这样配置完后,进行make zImage生成zImage内核镜像。

 

好了,下面我们分析下基于pwm的背光驱动/driver/video/backlight/pwm_bl.c

static struct platform_driver pwm_backlight_driver = {

       .driver            = {

              .name      = "pwm-backlight", //驱动名

              .owner    = THIS_MODULE,

       },

       .probe            = pwm_backlight_probe, //探测函数

       .remove          = pwm_backlight_remove,

       .suspend  = pwm_backlight_suspend,

       .resume          = pwm_backlight_resume,

};

static int __init pwm_backlight_init(void)

{

       return platform_driver_register(&pwm_backlight_driver);

}

注意上面的pwm_backlight_driver中的驱动名"pwm-backlight"和我们刚才移植时添加的设备名"pwm-backlight"是一致的,这样设备和驱动就能匹配成功。下面看探测函数

static int pwm_backlight_probe(struct platform_device *pdev)

{

       struct platform_pwm_backlight_data *data = pdev->dev.platform_data;

       struct backlight_device *bl;

       struct pwm_bl_data *pb;  //本驱动的私有结构体

       int ret;

       if (!data) {

              dev_err(&pdev->dev, "failed to find platform data\n");

              return -EINVAL;

       }

       if (data->init) {  //初始化端口,这个端口函数在BSP中定义

              ret = data->init(&pdev->dev);

              if (ret < 0)

                     return ret;

       }

       pb = kzalloc(sizeof(*pb), GFP_KERNEL); //分配pwm_bl_data空间

       if (!pb) {

              dev_err(&pdev->dev, "no memory for state\n");

              ret = -ENOMEM;

              goto err_alloc;

       }

       pb->period = data->pwm_period_ns;   //获取周期

       pb->notify = data->notify;

       pb->pwm = pwm_request(data->pwm_id, "backlight"); //注册pwm设备

       if (IS_ERR(pb->pwm)) {

              dev_err(&pdev->dev, "unable to request PWM for backlight\n");

              ret = PTR_ERR(pb->pwm);

              goto err_pwm;

       } else

              dev_dbg(&pdev->dev, "got pwm for backlight\n");

       bl = backlight_device_register(dev_name(&pdev->dev), &pdev->dev,

                     pb, &pwm_backlight_ops); //注册backlight设备

       if (IS_ERR(bl)) {

              dev_err(&pdev->dev, "failed to register backlight\n");

              ret = PTR_ERR(bl);

              goto err_bl;

       }

       bl->props.max_brightness = data->max_brightness;

       bl->props.brightness = data->dft_brightness;

       backlight_update_status(bl);  //先点亮背光

       platform_set_drvdata(pdev, bl); //设置bl为私有数据

       return 0;

err_bl:

       pwm_free(pb->pwm);

err_pwm:

       kfree(pb);

err_alloc:

       if (data->exit)

              data->exit(&pdev->dev);

       return ret;

}

对于这个驱动,我们重点关注的是注册backlight设备时传入的参数pwm_backlight_ops,因为我们之前分析backlight背光子系统时说过,背光设备结构体中有个操作背光的函数集合,在我们的pwm_bl.c中,就需要定义这个操作背光的函数集合,也就是pwm_backlight_ops

static struct backlight_ops pwm_backlight_ops = {

       .update_status = pwm_backlight_update_status, //更新背光亮度

       .get_brightness       = pwm_backlight_get_brightness, //获取背光亮度

};

获取背光亮度函数pwm_backlight_get_brightness很简单,跟踪得到

static int pwm_backlight_get_brightness(struct backlight_device *bl)

{

       return bl->props.brightness;

}

我们重点看更新背光亮度函数pwm_backlight_update_status

static int pwm_backlight_update_status(struct backlight_device *bl)

{

       struct pwm_bl_data *pb = dev_get_drvdata(&bl->dev);

       int brightness = bl->props.brightness;

       int max = bl->props.max_brightness;

       if (bl->props.power != FB_BLANK_UNBLANK)

              brightness = 0;

       if (bl->props.fb_blank != FB_BLANK_UNBLANK)

              brightness = 0;

       if (pb->notify)

              brightness = pb->notify(brightness);

       if (brightness == 0) {  //背光值为0,关闭背光

              pwm_config(pb->pwm, 0, pb->period);

              pwm_disable(pb->pwm);

       } else {   //调用pwm中的API设置背光

              pwm_config(pb->pwm, brightness * pb->period / max, pb->period);

              pwm_enable(pb->pwm);

       }

       return 0;

}

好了,这样我们的pwm_bl.c也分析完了。在使用backlight子系统的时候,我们只需要在probe函数中注册pwmbacklight设备,然后定义背光操作函数集合即可。

 

五.驱动测试

实验环境:内核linux2.6.32.2arm-linux-gcc交叉编译器,mini2440开发板

下面我们进行对上面的驱动进行测试,按照上面的步骤操作,将上文已经编译好的zImage烧入开发板,通过超级终端控制,能控制蜂鸣器的发出的声音频率。

 

 

 

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