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分类: 系统运维

2009-08-06 14:11:32


Mysql – 5 .1.36.linux-i686-glibc23.tar.gz



tar  -vxzf mysql-5.1.36.linux-i686-glibc.tar.gz






 2.9. Installing MySQL from tar.gz Packages on Other Unix-Like Systems

    This section covers the installation of MySQL binary distributions

   that are provided for various platforms in the form of compressed

   tar files (files with a .tar.gz extension). See Section,

   "MySQL Binaries Compiled by Sun Microsystems, Inc.," for a

   detailed list.

To obtain MySQL, see Section 2.1.3, "How to Get MySQL."

MySQL tar file binary distributions have names of the form

   mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz, where VERSION is a number (for example,

   5.1.36), and OS indicates the type of operating system for which

   the distribution is intended (for example, pc-linux-i686).


   In addition to these generic packages, we also offer binaries in

   platform-specific package formats for selected platforms. See

   Section 2.2, "Standard MySQL Installation Using a Binary

   Distribution," for more information on how to install these.

   You need the following tools to install a MySQL tar file binary


* GNU gunzip to uncompress the distribution.

* A reasonable tar to unpack the distribution. GNU tar is known

    to work. Some operating systems come with a preinstalled

    version of tar that is known to have problems. For example,

    the tar provided with early versions of Mac OS X, SunOS 4.x

    and Solaris 8 and earlier are known to have problems with long

    file names. On Mac OS X, you can use the preinstalled gnutar

    program. On other systems with a deficient tar, you should

    install GNU tar first.



   If you run into problems and need to file a bug report, please use

   the instructions in Section 1.6, "How to Report Bugs or Problems."

 The basic commands that you must execute to install and use a

   MySQL binary distribution are:

shell> groupadd mysql

shell> useradd -g mysql mysql

shell> cd /usr/local

shell> gunzip < /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz | tar xvf -

shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql

shell> cd mysql

shell> chown -R mysql .

shell> chgrp -R mysql .

shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql

shell> chown -R root .

shell> chown -R mysql data

shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &




This procedure does not set up any passwords for MySQL accounts.

After following the procedure, proceed to Section 2.11,

   "Post-Installation Setup and Testing."

A more detailed version of the preceding description for installing a binary distribution follows:


    1. Add a login user and group for mysqld to run as:


shell> groupadd mysql

shell> useradd -g mysql mysql

       These commands add the mysql group and the mysql user. The

       syntax for useradd and groupadd may differ slightly on

       different versions of Unix, or they may have different names

       such as adduser and addgroup.

       You might want to call the user and group something else

       instead of mysql. If so, substitute the appropriate name in

       the following steps.



    2. Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the

       distribution and change location into it. In the following

       example, we unpack the distribution under /usr/local. (The

       instructions, therefore, assume that you have permission to

       create files and directories in /usr/local. If that directory

       is protected, you must perform the installation as root.)



shell> cd /usr/local

3. Obtain a distribution file using the instructions in Section

       2.1.3, "How to Get MySQL." For a given release, binary

       distributions for all platforms are built from the same MySQL

       source distribution.



    4. Unpack the distribution, which creates the installation

       directory. Then create a symbolic link to that directory:


shell> tar zxvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz


 The tar command creates a directory named mysql-VERSION-OS.

       The ln command makes a symbolic link to that directory. This

       lets you refer more easily to the installation directory as


       With GNU tar, no separate invocation of gunzip is necessary.

       You can replace the first line with the following alternative

       command to uncompress and extract the distribution:



    5. Change location into the installation directory:

shell> cd mysql

 You will find several files and subdirectories in the mysql directory. The most important for installation purposes are the bin and scripts subdirectories.

 + The bin directory contains client programs and the server. You should add the full path name of this directory to your PATH environment variable so that your shell finds the MySQL programs properly. See Section2.14, "Environment Variables."

 + The scripts directory contains the mysql_install_db script used to initialize the mysql database containingthe grant tables that store the server access permissions.




6. Ensure that the distribution contents are accessible to mysql.

 If you unpacked the distribution as mysql, no further action

 is required. If you unpacked the distribution as root, its

  contents will be owned by root. Change its ownership to mysql

  by executing the following commands as root in the

  installation directory:

shell> chown -R mysql .

shell> chgrp -R mysql .

 The first command changes the owner attribute of the files to

 the mysql user. The second changes the group attribute to the

 mysql group.



  7. If you have not installed MySQL before, you must create the

       MySQL data directory and initialize the grant tables:


shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql

       If you run the command as root, include the --user option as

       shown. If you run the command while logged in as that user,

       you can omit the --user option.

       The command should create the data directory and its contentswith mysql as the owner.After creating or updating the grant tables, you need torestart the server manually.



8. Most of the MySQL installation can be owned by root if you

  like. The exception is that the data directory must be owned

  by mysql. To accomplish this, run the following commands as

  root in the installation directory:


 9. If you want MySQL to start automatically when you boot your

       machine, you can copy support-files/mysql.server to the

       location where your system has its startup files. More

       information can be found in the support-files/mysql.server

       script itself and in Section, "Starting and Stopping

       MySQL Automatically."




   10. You can set up new accounts using the bin/mysql_setpermission

       script if you install the DBI and DBD::mysql Perl modules. See

       Section 4.6.14, "mysql_setpermission --- Interactively Set

       Permissions in Grant Tables." For Perl module installation

       instructions, see Section 2.15, "Perl Installation Notes."



   11. If you would like to use mysqlaccess and have the MySQL

    distribution in some nonstandard location, you must change the

   location where mysqlaccess expects to find the mysql client.

    Edit the bin/mysqlaccess script at approximately line 18.

   Search for a line that looks like this:

$MYSQL   = '/usr/local/bin/mysql';    # path to mysql executable

       Change the path to reflect the location where mysql actually

       is stored on your system. If you do not do this, a Broken pipe

       error will occur when you run mysqlaccess.

After everything has been unpacked and installed, you should test

your distribution. To start the MySQL server, use the following


shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &


   If you run the command as root, you must use the --user option as

   shown. The value of the option is the name of the login account

   that you created in the first step to use for running the server.

   If you run the command while logged in as mysql, you can omit the

   --user option.


   If the command fails immediately and prints mysqld ended, you can

   find some information in the host_name.err file in the data


 More information about mysqld_safe is given in Section 4.3.2,

   "mysqld_safe --- MySQL Server Startup Script."


 The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially

   have no passwords. After starting the server, you should set up

   passwords for them using the instructions in Section 2.11,

   "Post-Installation Setup and Testing."



./mysql  -u  root  -p

Password:     //////初始密码为空

以上即是安装mysql 5.1数据库完整过程


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