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分类: LINUX

2015-08-28 00:09:24

原文地址:Scrapy 深入一点点 作者:shenhailuanma

转自:

Scrapy 深入一点点

越来越感觉到scrapy的便利,下边继续记录Scrapy

  1. scrapy是基于twisted框架编写的,搞定PyBrain有机会就继续深入一下Twisted框架。

    Twisted is an event-driven networking engine written in Python and licensed under the open source

1. 上一篇中缺少了很多记述,现在补充上

* `scrapy startproject xxx` 新建一个xxx的project
* `scrapy crawl xxx` 开始爬取,必须在project中
* `scrapy shell url` 在scrapy的shell中打开url,非常实用
* `scrapy runspider ` 可以在没有project的情况下运行爬虫
  1. scrapy crawl xxx -a category=xxx 向spider传递参数(早知道这个,京东爬虫就不会写的那么乱套了,哎)def __init__(self, category=None): 在spider的init函数获取参数。

  2. 第一个Request对象是由make_requests_from_url函数生成的,callback=self.parse。

  3. 除了BaseSpider以外,还有很多可以直接继承来用的Spider,比如class scrapy.contrib.spiders.CrawlSpider

    This is the most commonly used spider for crawling regular websites, as it provides a convenient mechanism for following links by defining a set of rules. It may not be the best suited for your particular web sites or project, but it’s generic enough for several cases, so you can start from it and override it as needed for more custom functionality, or just implement your own spider.

    这个比BaseSpider多了一个rules对象,通过这个Rules我们可以选择爬取哪些结构的URL。示例代码:

    from scrapy.contrib.spiders import CrawlSpider, Rule
    from scrapy.contrib.linkextractors.sgml import SgmlLinkExtractor
    from scrapy.selector import HtmlXPathSelector
    from scrapy.item import Item
    
    class MySpider(CrawlSpider):
        name = 'example.com'
        allowed_domains = ['example.com']
        start_urls = ['']
    
        rules = (
            # Extract links matching 'category.php' (but not matching 'subsection.php')
            # and follow links from them (since no callback means follow=True by default).
            Rule(SgmlLinkExtractor(allow=('category\.php', ), deny=('subsection\.php', ))),
    
            # Extract links matching 'item.php' and parse them with the spider's method parse_item
            Rule(SgmlLinkExtractor(allow=('item\.php', )), callback='parse_item'),
        )
    
        def parse_item(self, response):
            self.log('Hi, this is an item page! %s' % response.url)
    
            hxs = HtmlXPathSelector(response)
            item = Item()
            item['id'] = hxs.select('//td[@id="item_id"]/text()').re(r'ID: (\d+)')
            item['name'] = hxs.select('//td[@id="item_name"]/text()').extract()
            item['description'] = hxs.select('//td[@id="item_description"]/text()').extract()
            return item

    XMLFeedSpider: from scrapy import log from scrapy.contrib.spiders import XMLFeedSpider from myproject.items import TestItem

    class MySpider(XMLFeedSpider):
        name = 'example.com'
        allowed_domains = ['example.com']
        start_urls = ['/feed.xml']
        iterator = 'iternodes' # This is actually unnecessary, since it's the default value
        itertag = 'item'
    
        def parse_node(self, response, node):
            log.msg('Hi, this is a <%s> node!: %s' % (self.itertag, ''.join(node.extract())))
    
            item = Item()
            item['id'] = node.select('@id').extract()
            item['name'] = node.select('name').extract()
            item['description'] = node.select('description').extract()
            return item

    还有CSVFeedSpider SitemapSpider 等等各种针对不同需求的Spider,scrapy.contrib.spiders

  4. Scrapy 还提供了一个服务器版scrapyd。可以方便的上传管理爬虫任务。

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