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分类: Mysql/postgreSQL

2011-01-28 13:22:57

PostgreSQL HOT STANDBY by log shipping 测试:
一、准备硬件
1. 主节点硬件配置
DISK : 146GB*6
MEM : 14GB
CPU : 2.83GHz*8
2. standby节点硬件配置
DISK : 146GB*4
MEM : 8GB
CPU : 2.0GHz*8

二、准备环境
1. 系统
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 5.5 (Tikanga) x64
2. 时钟同步
8 * * * * /usr/sbin/ntpdate asia.pool.ntp.org && /sbin/hwclock --systohc
3. 配置目录
mkdir -p /database/pgdata/tbs1
mkdir -p /database/pgdata/tbs2
mkdir -p /database/pgdata/tbs3
mkdir -p /database/pgdata/tbs4
mkdir -p /database/pgdata/tbs5
fdisk
mkfs.ext3
mount /dev/cciss/c0d1p1 /database/pgdata/tbs1
mount /dev/cciss/c0d2p1 /database/pgdata/tbs2
mount /dev/cciss/c0d3p1 /database/pgdata/tbs3
mount /dev/cciss/c0d4p1 /database/pgdata/tbs4
mount /dev/cciss/c0d5p1 /database/pgdata/tbs5
master节点:
[root@db-172-16-3-33 ~]# df -h
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/cciss/c0d0p1      31G  8.1G   21G  29% /
/dev/cciss/c0d0p3      88G  1.7G   81G   3% /opt
tmpfs                 6.9G     0  6.9G   0% /dev/shm
/dev/cciss/c0d1p1     135G   76M  128G   1% /database/pgdata/tbs1
/dev/cciss/c0d2p1     135G  6.1G  122G   5% /database/pgdata/tbs2
/dev/cciss/c0d3p1     135G  3.3G  125G   3% /database/pgdata/tbs3
/dev/cciss/c0d4p1     135G  5.6G  123G   5% /database/pgdata/tbs4
/dev/cciss/c0d5p1     135G   16G  113G  13% /database/pgdata/tbs5

slave节点:
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda1              31G  3.5G   26G  13% /
/dev/sda3              94G  386M   89G   1% /opt
tmpfs                 3.9G     0  3.9G   0% /dev/shm
/dev/sdb1             134G   76M  128G   1% /database/pgdata/tbs1
/dev/sdc1             134G  188M  127G   1% /database/pgdata/tbs2
/dev/sdd1             134G  2.9G  125G   3% /database/pgdata/tbs3
172.16.3.33:/database/pgdata/tbs4
                      135G  5.6G  123G   5% /database/pgdata/tbs4

vi /etc/fstab
4. 在主节点配置nfs,将wal归档目录export出去,
(这里没有使用中央日志服务器,有条件的话还是需要一个比较大的日志服务器为好,以便支持更多的slave节点)
/database/pgdata/tbs4 172.16.3.39/32(rw,no_root_squash,sync)
  slave节点mount这个目录.
  确保master节点和slave节点的postgres用户gid uid相同,否则可能有权限的问题.
5. 配置内核参数等
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.sem = 501000 6412800000 501000 12800
fs.file-max = 767246
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024 65000
net.core.rmem_default = 1048576
net.core.rmem_max = 1048576
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 262144
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle=1
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog=4096
net.core.netdev_max_backlog=10000
vm.overcommit_memory=0
net.ipv4.ip_conntrack_max=655360

*  soft    nofile  131072
*  hard    nofile  131072
*  soft    nproc   131072
*  hard    nproc   131072
*  soft    core    unlimited
*  hard    core    unlimited
*  soft    memlock 50000000
*  hard    memlock 50000000

6. 配置系统服务
chkconfig --level 35 nfs on
chkconfig --level 35 portmap pn

7. 配置防火墙
vi /etc/sysconfig/iptables

8. 升级操作系统补丁,驱动等

三、安装PostgreSQL 9.0.2
1. postgres user profile:
export PS1="$USER@`/bin/hostname -s`-> "
export PGPORT=1921
export PGDATA=/database/pgdata/tbs1/pg_root
export PGARCHIVE=/database/pgdata/tbs4/pg_arch

export LANG=en_US.utf8

export PGHOME=/opt/pgsql
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$PGHOME/lib:/lib64:/usr/lib64:/usr/local/lib64:/lib:/usr/lib:/usr/local/lib
export DATE=`date +"%Y%m%d%H%M"`
export PATH=$PGHOME/bin:$PATH:.
export MANPATH=$PGHOME/share/man:$MANPATH
alias rm='rm -i'
alias ll='ls -lh'

2. 配置数据库相关目录
2.1 log
  /var/applog/pg_log
2.2 pghome
  /opt/pgsql
2.3 pgdata
  /database/pgdata/tbs1/pg_root
2.4 pgarchive
  /database/pgdata/tbs4/pg_arch

3. 初始化数据库
initdb -D /database/pgdata/tbs1/pg_root -E UTF8 --locale=C -U postgres -X /database/pgdata/tbs2/pg_xlog -W

四、配置master节点
1. pg_hba.conf
# "local" is for Unix domain socket connections only
local   all             all                                     trust
# IPv4 local connections:
host    all             all             127.0.0.1/32            trust
# IPv6 local connections:
# host    all             all             ::1/128                 trust
host all all 0.0.0.0/0  md5

2. postgresql.conf
listen_addresses = '*'          # what IP address(es) to listen on;
port = 1921                             # (change requires restart)
max_connections = 2000                  # (change requires restart)
unix_socket_directory = '/database/pgdata/tbs1/pg_root'         # (change requires restart)
unix_socket_permissions = 0700          # begin with 0 to use octal notation
password_encryption = on
shared_buffers = 2048MB                 # min 128kB
maintenance_work_mem = 2048MB           # min 1MB
max_stack_depth = 8MB                   # min 100kB
wal_level = hot_standby                 # minimal, archive, or hot_standby
synchronous_commit = off                # immediate fsync at commit
wal_sync_method = fdatasync             # the default is the first option
wal_buffers = 128000kB                  # min 32kB
wal_writer_delay = 20ms                 # 1-10000 milliseconds
checkpoint_segments = 64                # in logfile segments, min 1, 16MB each
checkpoint_timeout = 30min              # range 30s-1h
archive_mode = on               # allows archiving to be done
archive_command = 'cp %p $PGARCHIVE/%f'         # command to use to archive a logfile segment
max_wal_senders = 30            # max number of walsender processes
random_page_cost = 2.0                  # same scale as above
effective_cache_size = 12800MB
constraint_exclusion = partition        # on, off, or partition
log_destination = 'csvlog'              # Valid values are combinations of
logging_collector = on          # Enable capturing of stderr and csvlog
log_directory = '/var/applog/pg_log'            # directory where log files are written,
log_filename = 'postgresql-%Y-%m-%d_%H%M%S.log' # log file name pattern,
log_truncate_on_rotation = on           # If on, an existing log file of the
log_rotation_age = 1d                   # Automatic rotation of logfiles will
log_rotation_size = 10MB                # Automatic rotation of logfiles will
log_min_duration_statement = 1000ms     # -1 is disabled, 0 logs all statements
log_checkpoints = on
log_lock_waits = on                     # log lock waits >= deadlock_timeout
log_statement = 'ddl'                   # none, ddl, mod, all
track_activity_query_size = 2048        # (change requires restart)
autovacuum = on                 # Enable autovacuum subprocess?  'on'
log_autovacuum_min_duration = 0 # -1 disables, 0 logs all actions and
check_function_bodies = on
bytea_output = 'escape'                 # hex, escape
datestyle = 'iso, mdy'
lc_messages = 'C'                       # locale for system error message
lc_monetary = 'C'                       # locale for monetary formatting
lc_numeric = 'C'                        # locale for number formatting
lc_time = 'C'                           # locale for time formatting
default_text_search_config = 'pg_catalog.english'
deadlock_timeout = 1s

3. 启动主节点.

五、传输基础文件至slave节点,模拟一个正在运行的数据库生成复制库的操作.
1. on the master
select pg_start_backup('replication backup');
2. on the master
scp $PGDATA $SLAVE_IP:$PGDATA
3. on the master
select pg_stop_backup();

六、配置slave节点
1. on the slave
chown -R postgres:postgres $PGDATA
su - postgres
cd $PGDATA
rm postmaster.pid
rm -rf pg_xlog
ln -s /database/pgdata/tbs2/pg_xlog ./pg_xlog
2. 配置postgresql.conf
listen_addresses = '*'          # what IP address(es) to listen on;
port = 1921                             # (change requires restart)
max_connections = 2000                  # (change requires restart)
unix_socket_directory = '/database/pgdata/tbs1/pg_root'         # (change requires restart)
unix_socket_permissions = 0700          # begin with 0 to use octal notation
password_encryption = on
shared_buffers = 2048MB                 # min 128kB
maintenance_work_mem = 2048MB           # min 1MB
max_stack_depth = 8MB                   # min 100kB
wal_level = hot_standby                 # minimal, archive, or hot_standby
synchronous_commit = off                # immediate fsync at commit
wal_sync_method = fdatasync             # the default is the first option
wal_buffers = 128000kB                  # min 32kB
wal_writer_delay = 20ms                 # 1-10000 milliseconds
checkpoint_segments = 64                # in logfile segments, min 1, 16MB each
checkpoint_timeout = 30min              # range 30s-1h
archive_mode = on               # allows archiving to be done
archive_command = 'cp %p $PGARCHIVE/%f'         # command to use to archive a logfile segment
max_wal_senders = 30            # max number of walsender processes
hot_standby = off                        # 这个参数在初始化slave的时候关闭是比较明智的选择,在初始同步完成后在开启
random_page_cost = 2.0                  # same scale as above
effective_cache_size = 12800MB
constraint_exclusion = partition        # on, off, or partition
log_destination = 'csvlog'              # Valid values are combinations of
logging_collector = on          # Enable capturing of stderr and csvlog
log_directory = '/var/applog/pg_log'            # directory where log files are written,
log_filename = 'postgresql-%Y-%m-%d_%H%M%S.log' # log file name pattern,
log_truncate_on_rotation = on           # If on, an existing log file of the
log_rotation_age = 1d                   # Automatic rotation of logfiles will
log_rotation_size = 10MB                # Automatic rotation of logfiles will
log_min_duration_statement = 1000ms     # -1 is disabled, 0 logs all statements
log_checkpoints = on
log_lock_waits = on                     # log lock waits >= deadlock_timeout
log_statement = 'ddl'                   # none, ddl, mod, all
track_activity_query_size = 2048        # (change requires restart)
autovacuum = on                 # Enable autovacuum subprocess?  'on'
log_autovacuum_min_duration = 0 # -1 disables, 0 logs all actions and
check_function_bodies = on
bytea_output = 'escape'                 # hex, escape
datestyle = 'iso, mdy'
lc_messages = 'C'                       # locale for system error message
lc_monetary = 'C'                       # locale for monetary formatting
lc_numeric = 'C'                        # locale for number formatting
lc_time = 'C'                           # locale for time formatting
default_text_search_config = 'pg_catalog.english'
deadlock_timeout = 1s

3. 配置recovery.conf
restore_command = 'cp $PGARCHIVE/%f %p'         # e.g. 'cp /mnt/server/archivedir/%f %p'
archive_cleanup_command = 'pg_archivecleanup $PGARCHIVE %r'
standby_mode = 'on'
trigger_file = '/database/pgdata/tbs1/pg_root/postgresql.trigger.1921'

4. 启动slave节点

启动完后,可以通过top看到slave节点在拼命的恢复pg_start_backup以来的所有wal.
恢复完后修改hot_standby = on,重启slave节点

七、测试
1. (on master)新建用户
create role digoal nosuperuser login encrypted password 'digoal';
2. 新建表空间
on master
su - postgres
mkdir /database/pgdata/tbs3/tbs_test
on slave
su - postgres
mkdir /database/pgdata/tbs3/tbs_test
on master
create tablespace tbs_digoal owner test location '/database/pgdata/tbs3/tbs_digoal';
3. (on master)新建数据库
create database digoal with owner digoal template template0 encoding 'UTF8' tablespace tbs_digoal;
4. (on master)新建schema
\c digoal digoal
create schema digoal authorization digoal;
5. (on master)新建表
\c digoal digoal
create table tbl_users (id int8 , nick varchar(32));
6. (on master)插入测试数据
insert into tbl_users select generate_series(1,10000000),'digoal';
由于插入数据量比较大,可以很明显的看到pg_arch目录中的WAL在增加,如
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres      254 Dec 30 15:17 000000010000000000000004.00000020.backup
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 67108864 Dec 30 15:19 000000010000000100000024
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 67108864 Dec 30 15:19 000000010000000100000025
生成WAL后,slave节点又开始recover事件,recover完成后等待下一个wal如:
25456 postgres  18   0 2389m 1364  736 S  0.0  0.0   0:00.00 postgres: startup process   waiting for 00000001000000010000000E

7. (on master)使用DDL测试冲突
on master
alter table tbl_users add column first_name default 'zhou';
alter table tbl_users add column last_name default 'digoal';
在slave恢复期间,在slave节点执行 select count(*) from tbl_users;发生等待事件.

on slave /var/applog/pg_log中查看最近一个日志文件,
2010-12-30 15:04:01.462 CST,"digoal","digoal",25240,"127.0.0.1:43079",4d1c2edf.6298,1,"SELECT waiting",2010-12-30 15:03:59 CST,2/14,0,LOG,00000,"process 25240 still waiting for AccessShareLock on relation 16388 of database 16386 after 1000.564 ms",,,,,,"select count(*) from tbl_users;",22,,"psql"

如果数据库没有其他操作了,不再发生ARCHIVE操作时,你可能会发现主节点已经alter完了,slave节点还是在等待.
原因是alter完的log信息存在的XLOG还没有发生归档,slave节点会一直等待下去(这时可以手工执行pg_switch_xlog).

8. (on master)测试checkpoint
在PostgreSQL中发生checkpoint后,在此之前的WAL在做数据库恢复时就用不到了,因为确保数据都写入数据文件了.
pg_archivecleanup也是根据checkpoint来判断和删除不需要的WAL的.

9. (on slave)测试cleanarchive
在做checkpoint前,去看$PGARCHIVE目录,已经被apply的文件还存在,并没有被pg_archivecleanup命令清除掉,原因就是这些文件是最近一次checkpoint以来的WAL文件,在数据库恢复时是需要用到的.
如果你手工执行pg_archivecleanup $PGARCHIVE 000000010000000200000031 (假设000000010000000200000031这个是在$PGARCHIVE中的一个WAL的文件名)
这条命令将删除000000010000000200000031以前生成的所有WAL文件,一定要小心操作,万一不小心把最近一次CHECKPOINT以来的WAL删除了,
补救的方法是赶紧到master上做一次checkpoint,让slave知道这次checkpoint,否则的话下次slave启动还会读到000000010000000200000031这个文件以前的文件,那时候就只能找到这些文件或重建slave了.

10. (on slave)测试active slave
激活SLAVE很简单,了解到已经apply了最新的WAL后,执行以下
su - postgres
touch /database/pgdata/tbs1/pg_root/postgresql.trigger.1921
数据库会触发激活的动作,激活后/database/pgdata/tbs1/pg_root/postgresql.trigger.1921这个文件会自动删掉,并且recovery.conf被重命名为recovery.done.
激活后的slave不可逆转为slave了.需要重建.

11. 监控
pg_current_xlog_insert_location
pg_current_xlog_location
pg_last_xlog_receive_location
pg_last_xlog_replay_location
top
CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW pg_stat_replication AS
    SELECT
            S.procpid,
            S.usesysid,
            U.rolname AS usename,
            S.application_name,
            S.client_addr,
            S.client_port,
            S.backend_start
    FROM pg_stat_get_activity(NULL) AS S, pg_authid U
    WHERE S.usesysid = U.oid AND S.datid = 0;

八、附pgctl.sh脚本
#!/bin/bash

# environment.
# Get the aliases and functions
if [ -f ~/.bashrc ]; then
        . ~/.bashrc
fi

# User specific environment and startup programs

export PGHOME=/opt/pgsql
export PATH=$PGHOME/bin:$PATH
export PGDATA=/database/pgdata/tbs1/pg_root
export PGPORT=1921
export LANG='en_US.utf8'
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$PGHOME/lib:/lib64:/usr/lib64:/usr/local/lib64:/lib:/usr/lib:/usr/local/lib

RETVAL=1

start() {
su - postgres -c "/usr/bin/nohup $PGHOME/bin/postgres -D $PGDATA -p $PGPORT >/dev/null 2>>/var/applog/pg_log/start_err.log           RETVAL=$?
         return $RETVAL
}

stop() {
su - postgres -c "$PGHOME/bin/pg_ctl stop -D $PGDATA -m fast"
         RETVAL=$?
         return $RETVAL
}

reload() {
su - postgres -c "$PGHOME/bin/pg_ctl reload -D $PGDATA"
         RETVAL=$?
         return $RETVAL
}

# See how we were called.
case "$1" in
  start)
        start
        ;;
  stop)
        stop
        ;;
  restart)
        stop
        start
        ;;
  reload)
        reload
        ;;
  *)
        echo $"Usage: $prog {start|stop|restart|reload}"
        exit 2
esac

exit $RETVAL
# Auth Digoal.Zhou
# Corp. Sky-Mobi

久、其他
1. 自9.0以后,PostgreSQL引入了一个叫pg_archivecleanup的模块,简化了standby的配置.以前通过pg_standby来实现的.
2. 第二象限开发的基于PostgreSQL 内部复制的产品
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