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Nagios 监控实例部署 2017-02-20 16:04:59

分类: 系统运维

Nagios是一款企业级开源软件,专注于监控服务器上服务是否正常,不生成图形,提供报警机制,邮件或者短信发送监控状态,它通过各种插件实现不同的功能。


Nagios 监控平台主程序

Nagios-plugins 必选插件

NRPE 监控远程服务器的主机资源

NSClient++ 用于监控Windows主机

NDOUtils 将数据写入数据库


一、安装RHEL7.2

  最小化安装,配置IP,时间同步,本地yum源,安装vim(个人习惯)、bash-completion(命令补齐)

# hostnamectl set-hostname nagios_cacti

# yum install vim

# yum install bash-completion

# yum install chrony

# systemctl enable chronyd

# systemctl start chronyd

# vim /etc/chrony.conf

server 10.100.2.5 iburst //增加一行时间源

# yum install ntpdate

# ntpdate 10.100.2.5 //手动同步时间

配置CentOS 163 yum源

# yum install wget

# wget http://mirrors.163.com/centos/7.2.1511/os/x86_64/Packages/yum-3.4.3-132.el7.centos.0.1.noarch.rpm

# wget http://mirrors.163.com/centos/7.2.1511/os/x86_64/Packages/yum-metadata-parser-1.1.4-10.el7.x86_64.rpm

# wget http://mirrors.163.com/centos/7.2.1511/os/x86_64/Packages/yum-plugin-fastestmirror-1.1.31-34.el7.noarch.rpm

# wget http://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS7-Base-163.repo

# rpm -qa|grep yum //检查redhat是否安装了yum,及有哪些Yum包

# rpm -qa|grep yum|xargs rpm -e --nodeps //删除redhat自带的yum包

# rpm -ivh yum-3.4.3-132.el7.centos.0.1.noarch.rpm yum-metadata-parser-1.1.4-10.el7.x86_64.rpm yum-plugin-fastestmirror-1.1.31-34.el7.noarch.rpm

# mv CentOS7-Base-163.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/

# vim /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS7-Base-163.repo //通过":1,$s/$releasever/7/gc"和":1,$s/$basearch/x86_64/gc"查找和替换文件内容

yum clean all //清除yum缓存

yum makecache //重建缓存,以提高搜索软件包速度

# yum update //更新系统(省略)


实例应用:

1 监控快速部署

监控需要安装http php nagios nagios-plugins NRPE软件包

yum install -y gd gd-devel openssl openssl-devel httpd php gcc glibc glib-common make wget

net-snmp

setenforce 0

iptables -F


安装nagios 源码包下载安装

wget http://sourceforge.net/projects/nagios/files/nagios-3.x/nagios-3.5.0/nagios-3.5.0.tar.gz/download

groupadd nagios

useradd -g nagios nagios

tar -zxf nagios-3.5.0.tar.gz -C /usr/src/

cd /usr/src/nagios

./configure --with-nagios-user=nagios --with-nagios-group=nagios

make all

make install

make install-init #安装启动脚本

make install-commandmode #安装与配置目录权限

make install-config #安装配置文件模板

make install-webconf #web监控界面配置


安装nagios-plugins和nrpe

wget http://nchc.dl.sourceforge.net/project/nagiosplug/nagiosplug/1.4.16/nagios-plugins-1.4.16.tar.gz

tar -zxf nagios-plugins-1.4.16.tar.gz -C /usr/src/

cd /usr/src/nagios-plugins-1.4.16

./configure --prefix=/usr/local/nagios/

make && make install

wget wget http://nchc.dl.sourceforge.net/project/nagios/nrpe-2.x/nrpe-2.14/nrpe-2.14.tar.gz

tar -zxf nrpe-2.14.tar.gz -C /usr/src/

cd /usr/src/nrpe-2.14

./configure

make all

make install-plugin

make install-daemon

make install-daemon-config


chown -R nagions.nagions /usr/local/nagios


创建账户信息


htpasswd -c /usr/local/nagions/etc/htpasswd.users tomcat


iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT


service iptables save


启动服务


service httpd start

/etc/init.d/nagios start

chkconfig httpd on

chkconfig --add nagios

chkconfig nagios on


2 修改配置文件

nagios的配置文件较多,主要位于/usr/local/nagios/etc 下

nagios.conf 主配置文件

nrpe.cfg 远程监控配置文件

cgi.conf CGI配置文件

commands.cfg 命令定义文件

contacts.cfg 定义联系人文件

timepreriods.cfg 时间周期定义文件

tempaltes.cfg 对象定义参考模板

localhost.cfg 监控本机配置模板

printer.cfg 监控打印机模板

switch.cfg 监控交换模板

windows.cfg 监控Windows配置模板


很多配置文件无需修改可以直接使用

修改主配置文件nagios.cfg,主要是用cfg_file配置加载其他配置文件。


vim /usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg


cfg_file=/usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/commands.cfg

cfg_file=/usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/contacts.cfg

cfg_file=/usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/templates.cfg

cfg_file=/usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/timeperiods.cfg

cfg_file=/usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/localhost.cfg

cfg_file=/usr/local/nagios/etc/web1.cfg

cfg_file=/usr/local/nagios/etc/web2.cfg


修改CGI配置文件cgi.cfg,添加tomcat账户进来


vim /usr/local/nagios/etc/cgi.cfg


default_user_name=tomcat

authorized_for_system_information=nagiosadmin,tomcat

authorized_for_configuration_information=nagiosadmin,tomcat

authorized_for_system_commands=nagiosadmin,tomcat

authorized_for_all_services=nagiosadmin,tomcat

authorized_for_all_hosts=nagiosadmin,tomcat

authorized_for_all_service_commands=nagiosadmin,tomcat

authorized_for_all_host_commands=nagiosadmin,tomcat


修改命令配置文件command.cfg,定义命令实现的方式,如邮件报警,使用工具,内容格式等。


vim /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/commands.cfg


define command{

command_name check_nrpe

command_line $USER1$/check_nrpe -H $HOSTADDRESS$ -t 30 -c $ARG1$

}

define command{

command_name check_nrpe_args

command_line $USER1$/check_nrpe -H $HOSTADDRESS$ -t 30 -c $ARG1$ -a $ARG2$

}


修改联系人配置文件contacts.cfg 报警的联系人及联系方式

define contact{

contact_name nagiosadmin

use generic-contact

alias Nagios Admin

email yourname@domain.com

}


修改报警时间周期timeperiods.cfg


vim /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/timeperiods.cfg


define timeperiods{

timeperiod_name 24x7 #监控所有时间段(7*24小时)

alias 24 Hours A Day, 7 Days A Week

sunday 00:00-24:00

monday 00:00-24:00

tuesday 00:00-24:00

wednesday 00:00-24:00

thursday 00:00-24:00

friday 00:00-24:00

saturday 00:00-24:00

}


修改本机的配置localhost.cfg

define host{

use linux-server

host_name duangr-1

alias duangr-1

address 192.168.56.10

}


define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-1

service_description Host Alive

check_command check-host-alive

}

define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-1

service_description Users

check_command check_local_users!20!50

}

define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-1

service_description CPU

check_command check_local_load!5.0,4.0,3.0!10.0,6.0,4.0

}

define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-1

service_description Disk Root

check_command check_local_disk!20%!10%!/

}

define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-1

service_description Disk Home

check_command check_local_disk!20%!10%!/export/home

}

define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-1

service_description Zombie Procs

check_command check_local_procs!5!10!Z

}

define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-1

service_description Total Procs

check_command check_local_procs!250!400!RSZDT

}

define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-1

service_description Swap Usage

check_command check_local_swap!20!10

}


修改模板文件templates.cfg

 

vi /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/templates.cfg


#联系人模板generic-contact


define contact{

name generic-contact

service_notification_period 24x7

host_notification_period 24x7

service_notification_options w,u,c,r,f,s

host_notification_options d,u,r,f,s

service_notification_commands notify-service-by-email

host_notification_commands notify-host-by-email

register 0

}


#定义generic-host主机模板


define host{

name generic-host

notifications_enabled 1

event_handler_enabled 1

flap_detection_enabled 1

failure_prediction_enabled 1

process_perf_data 1

retain_status_information 1

retain_nonstatus_information 1

notification_period 24x7

register 0

}


#定义Linux主机模板


define host{

name linux-server

use generic-host

check_period 24x7

check_interval 5

retry_interval 1

max_check_attempts 10

check_command check-host-alive

notification_period workhours

notification_interval 120

notification_options d,u,r

contact_groups admins

register 0

}


创建远程监控web1.cfg

vim /usr/local/nagios/etc/web1.cfg

define host{

use linux-server

host_name duangr-2

alias duangr-2

address 192.168.56.11

}


define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-2

service_description Host Alive

check_command check-host-alive

}

define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-2

service_description Users

check_command check_nrpe_args!check_users!5 10

}

define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-2

service_description CPU

check_command check_nrpe_args!check_load!15,10,5 30,25,20

}

define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-2

service_description Disk Root

check_command check_nrpe_args!check_disk!20% 10% /

}

define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-2

service_description Disk /export/home

check_command check_nrpe_args!check_disk!20% 10% /export/home

}

define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-2

service_description Procs Zombie

check_command check_nrpe_args!check_procs!5 10 Z

}

define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-2

service_description Procs Total

check_command check_nrpe_args!check_procs_args!"-w400 -c600" }

define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-2

service_description Swap Usage

check_command check_nrpe_args!check_swap!20% 10%

}


;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

;; 下面是一些常用进程的监控,主要是云平台相关进程

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

;; 监控crond进程

define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-2

service_description PS: crond

check_command check_nrpe_args!check_procs_args!"-c1:1 -Ccrond" }

;; 监控zookeeper进程

define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-2

service_description PS: QuorumPeerMain

check_command check_nrpe_args!check_procs_args!"-c1:1 -Cjava -aserver.quorum.QuorumPeerMain" }

;;监控storm的从节点进程

define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-2

service_description PS: supervisor

check_command check_nrpe_args!check_procs_args!"-c1:1 -Cjava -adaemon.supervisor" }

;; 监控storm的主节点进程

define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-2

service_description PS: nimbus

check_command check_nrpe_args!check_procs_args!"-c1:1 -Cjava -adaemon.nimbus" }

;; 监控MetaQ进程

define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-2

service_description PS: MetaQ

check_command check_nrpe_args!check_procs_args!"-c1:1 -Cjava -ametamorphosis-server-w" }

;; 监控Redis进程

define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-2

service_description PS: redis-server

check_command check_nrpe_args!check_procs_args!"-c1:1 -Credis-server" }

;; 监控hadoop主节点NameNode进程

define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-2

service_description PS: NameNode 

check_command check_nrpe_args!check_procs_args!"-c1:1 -Cjava -aserver.namenode.NameNode" }

;; 监控hadoop主节点SecondaryNameNode进程

define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-2

service_description PS: SecondaryNameNode

check_command check_nrpe_args!check_procs_args!"-c1:1 -Cjava -aserver.namenode.SecondaryNameNode" }

;; 监控hadoop主节点ResourceManager进程

define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-2

service_description PS: ResourceManager

check_command check_nrpe_args!check_procs_args!"-c1:1 -Cjava -aserver.resourcemanager.ResourceManager" }

;; 监控hadoop从节点DataNode进程

define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-2

service_description PS: DataNode

check_command check_nrpe_args!check_procs_args!"-c1:1 -Cjava -aserver.datanode.DataNode" }

;;监控hadoop从节点NodeManager进程

define service{

use local-service

host_name duangr-2

service_description PS: NodeManager

check_command check_nrpe_args!check_procs_args!"-c1:1 -Cjava -aserver.nodemanager.NodeManager" }


由于duangr-2是远程主机,因此使用check_nrpe_args命令来监控.


/etc/init.d/nagios restart


快速定位配置文件问题所在命令


/usr/local/nagios/bin/nagios -V /usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg


被监控机安装软件 nagios-plugin nrpe


yum install -y openssl openssl-devel


groupadd nagios

useradd -g nagios -s /sbin/nologin nagios

tar -zxf nagios-plugins-2.1.6.tar.gz -C /usr/src/

cd /usr/src/nagios-plugins-2.1.6

./configure --prefix=/usr/local/nagios/ --with-nagios-user=nagios --with-nagios-group=nagios

make && make install

 

tar -zxf nrpe-2.14.tar.gz -C /usr/src/

cd /usr/src/nrpe-2.14

./configure

make all

make install-plugin

make install-daemon

make install-daemon-config


修改客户端的NRPE配置文件

command[check_users]=/usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_users -w 5 -c 10

command[check_load]=/usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_load -w 15,10,5 -c 30,25,20

command[check_sda2]=/usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_disk -w 20% -c 10% -p /dev/sda2

command[check_swap]=/usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_disk -w 20% -c 10% -p /dev/shm

command[check_home]=/usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_disk -w 20% -c 10% -p /dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol00

command[check_zombie_procs]=/usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_procs -w 5 -c 10 -s Z

command[check_total_procs]=/usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_procs -w 200 -c 300

command[check_ping81]=/usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_ping -H 10.155.0.1 -w 100.0,20% -c 500.0,60%#

command[check_hda1]=/usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_disk -w 20 -c 10 -p /dev/hda1


/usr/local/nagios/bin/nrpe -c /usr/local/nagios/etc/nrpe.cfg -d

echo "/usr/local/nagios/bin/nrpe -c /usr/local/nagios/etc/nrpe.cfg -d" >> /etc/rc.local

netstat -lnupt |grep 5666

iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 5666 -j ACCEPT

service iptables save


 


检查监控命令配置是否ok

/usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_nrpe -H localhost -c check_users -a 5 10

/usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_nrpe -H localhost -c check_load -a 15,10,5 30,25,20

/usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_nrpe -H localhost -c check_disk -a 20% 10% /

/usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_nrpe -H localhost -c check_procs -a 200 400 RSZDT

/usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_nrpe -H localhost -c check_swap -a 20% 10%


没有问题就可以用浏览器访问nagios了


二、安装Nagios


1、下载软件包并安装Nagios

Nagios-4.2.1:

http://nchc.dl.sourceforge.net/project/nagios/nagios-4.x/nagios-4.2.1/nagios-4.2.1.tar.gz

Nagios-plugins-2.1.3:

https://nagios-plugins.org/download/nagios-plugins-2.1.3.tar.gz

NRPE-3.0.1:

https://codeload.github.com/NagiosEnterprises/nrpe/tar.gz/3.0.1

官方安装文档:Nagios QuickstartInstallation Guides

https://assets.nagios.com/downloads/nagioscore/docs/nagioscore/4/en/quickstart.html

# yum install httpd php gcc glibc glibc-common gd gd-devel

# yum install unzip //编译所需,否则会报错。

# useradd -M -s /sbin/nologin nagios

# usermod -aG nagios apache

# tar zxvf nagios-4.2.1.tar.gz

# cd nagios-4.2.1/

# make all

# make install

# make install-init

# make install-config

# make install-commandmode

# make install-webconf

# vim /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/contacts.cfg

email xxx@xxx.com //修改nagios警告信息的邮件地址

# htpasswd -c /usr/local/nagios/etc/htpasswd.users nagios //配置登录账号和密码


2、安装nagios-plugins插件

# tar zxvfnagios-plugins-2.1.3.tar.gz

# cd nagios-plugins-2.1.3/

# ./configure --with-nagios-user=nagios --with-nagios-group=nagios

# make

# make install

# chown -R nagios.nagios/usr/local/nagios/

# systemctl enable httpd

# systemctl start httpd

# systemctl enable nagios

# systemctl start nagios

# /etc/init.d/nagios checkconfig //检查nagios配置文件是否有错误,或使用以下命令检查:

# /usr/local/nagios/bin/nagios -v /usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg

# firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-service=http –permanent

# firewall-cmd –reload

# systemctl restart firewalld

使用http://10.100.2.158/nagios登录控制台,输入配置的账号密码即可登录。

wKiom1fo3t6jkVoQAAHA1QTH65w052.jpg

注:如果web管理员不是使用默认的nagiosadmin,需要修改cgi.cfg

# vim /usr/local/nagios/etc/cgi.cfg

//把所有的nagiosadmin改为自定义的用户名,否则查看Services时会提示权限不够。

wKiom1fo4TqjdDWYAACuiYSp7tE237.jpg

默认HTTP会有告警信息,解决办法:在/var/www/html目录新建一个空白index.html文件即可。

# touch /var/www/html/index.html

重启nagios和httpd服务,等待几分钟即恢复正常。


3、安装NRPE插件

# tar zxvf nrpe-3.0.1.tar.gz

# cd nrpe-3.0.1/

# yum install openssl-devel //解决checking for SSL headers... configure: error: Cannotfind ssl headers错误问题

# ./configure --with-nrpe-user=nagios --with-nrpe-group=nagios --with-nagios-user=nagios --with-nagios-group=nagios --enable-command-args --enable-ssl

# make all //编译和安装nrpe

# make install-plugin

# make install-daemon

# make install-config //注:nrpe3.0以下请使用# make install-daemon-config

# /usr/local/nagios/bin/nrpe -c /usr/local/nagios/etc/nrpe.cfg –d //启动nrpe服务

# yum install net-tools

# netstat –tnpl //可以看到5666端口已处于监听状态,说明nrpe服务已启动

# echo “/usr/local/nagios/bin/nrpe-c /usr/local/nagios/etc/nrpe.cfg –d” >> /etc/rc.local

# chmod +x /etc/rc.d/rc.local //设置开机自启动,手动重启方法如下:

# pkill nrpe && /usr/local/nagios/bin/nrpe -c /usr/local/nagios/etc/nrpe.cfg –d

vim /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/commands.cfg //末尾增加以下内容

define command{

command_name check_nrpe

command_line $USER1$/check_nrpe -H $HOSTADDRESS$ -c $ARG1$

}

//允许check_nrpe命令定义nagios服务,-c后面带的$ARG1$参数是传给nrpe daemon执行的检测命令,它必须是nrpe.cfg中所定义的命令。

//自定义的Servers下的cfg配置文件中使用check_nrpe的时候要用”!”带上这个参数。

//可通过# /usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_nrpe –h查看插件的命令参数。

# mkdir /usr/local/nagios/etc/servers //创建servers监控配置文件集中存储目录

# vim /usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg //修改配置文件

cfg_dir=/usr/local/nagios/etc/servers //启用此规则,即默认读取处理此目录下的配置文件


4、添加客户端(Client被监控端)

1>、客户端安装NRPE和插件nagios-plugins

下载所需软件包

nagios-plugins-2.1.3.tar.gz

nrpe-3.0.1.tar.gz

新建用户

# useradd –M –s /sbin/nologinnagios

先安装nagios-plugins(NRPE依赖于nagios-plugins)

# tar zxvf nagios-plugins-2.1.3.tar.gz

# cd nagios-plugins-2.1.3

# ./configure--with-nagios-user=nagios --with-nagios-group=nagios

# make all

# make install

再安装NRPE

# yum install openssl-devel

# tar zxvf nrpe-3.0.1.tar.gz

# cd nrpe-3.0.1

# ./configure --with-nrpe-user=nagios --with-nrpe-group=nagios --with-nagios-user=nagios --with-nagios-group=nagios --enable-command-args --enable-ssl

# make all

# make install-plugin

# make install-daemon

# make install-config

# ls /usr/local/nagios/libexec/ //查看安装成功的NRPE插件,有check_nrpe说明安装成功

# vim /usr/local/nagios/etc/nrpe.cfg //配置nrpe

allowed_hosts=127.0.0.1,10.100.2.158 //添加服务端IP

dont_blame_nrpe=1 //把0改为1,允许命令参数


#/usr/local/nagios/bin/nrpe -c /usr/local/nagios/etc/nrpe.cfg –d //启动nrpe服务


为了便于NRPE服务的启动,可以定义一个/etc/init.d/nrpe脚本

# vim /etc/init.d/nrpe //输入以下内容:

#!/bin/bash

# chkconfig: 2345 88 12

# description: NRPE DAEMON

NRPE=/usr/local/nagios/bin/nrpe

NRPECONF=/usr/local/nagios/etc/nrpe.cfg

case "$1" in

start)

echo -n "Starting NRPE daemon..."

$NRPE -c $NRPECONF -d

echo " done."

;;

stop)

echo -n "Stopping NRPE daemon..."

pkill -u nagios nrpe

echo " done."

;;

restart)

$0 stop

sleep 2

$0 start

;;

*)

echo "Usage: $0start|stop|restart"

;;

esac

exit 0

# chmod a+x /etc/init.d/nrpe //赋予脚本执行权限,即可以通过systemctl或service执行启动,停止了。

# service nrpe start //启动nrpe

#echo “/usr/local/nagios/bin/nrpe -c /usr/local/nagios/etc/nrpe.cfg -d” >> /etc/rc.local

或# chkconfig nrpe on //设置为开机自启动

# netstat –tnlp //查看5666端口是否成功启动


测试监控主机和被监控设备之间的连通性(Server上):


#/usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_nrpe -H 10.100.2.200


NRPE v3.0.1 //通信成功


2>、Server监控端创建Client被监控端配置文件


vim /usr/local/nagios/etc/servers/test.cfg //监控主机上新建Client端配置文件

define host{

use linux-server

host_name commission

alias commission

address 10.100.2.200

max_check_attempts 5

check_period 24x7

notification_interval 30

notification_period 24x7

}

define service{

use generic-service

host_name commission

service_description PING

check_command check_ping!100.0,20%!500.0,60%

}

define service{

use generic-service

host_name commission

service_description SSH

check_command check_ssh

notifications_enabled 0 ;disable notification

}

define service{

use generic-service

host_name commission

service_description CPU

check_command check_nrpe!check_cpu

notifications_enabled 1

}

define service{

use generic-service

host_name commission

service_description Physical Memory

check_command check_nrpe!check_mem

notifications_enabled 1

}

//可以以templates.cfg模板进行修改

关于check_cpu和check_mem自定义插件的使用方法(插件见附件):


2.1从官网下载需要的插件,注意修改+x执行权限和属性


2.2修改Client端配置:修改nrpe.cfg,增加以下内容


command[check_mem]=/usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_mem -w 10 -c 5

command[check_cpu]=/usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_cpu -w 80 -c 90


2.3重启nrpe服务


pkill nrpe&&/usr/local/nagios/bin/nrpe -c /usr/local/nagios/etc/nrpe.cfg -d


2.4修改Server端配置:修改test.cfg,在define service中定义check_command

check_command check_nrpe!check_mem

check_command check_nrpe!check_cpu


3>、利用NSClicent++监控远程Windows系统

下载插件包NSCP-0.4.4.19-x64.msi

在Windows客户端安装插件包:

wKiom1fuASiw0zYTAAHibsedLsU348.png

查看服务是否启动,勾选登录中的允许服务与桌面交互

wKiom1fuAYGwrzdoAANNKghjEpM605.png

安装完成查看启动的端口,5666nrpe12489NSClient++

wKioL1fuAZiBKLcoAACLVIDWWhk865.jpg

在监控主机的commands.cfg配置文件中修改以下部分,添加-s 密码:

vim /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/commands.cfg

# 'check_nt' command definition

define command{

command_name check_nt

command_line $USER1$/check_nt -H $HOSTADDRESS$ -p 12489 -s 123456 -v $ARG1$ $ARG2$

}

添加监控客户端:

vim /usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg

cfg_file=/usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/windows.cfg //启用windows监控,如果有添加启用cfg_dir=/usr/local/nagios/etc/servers目录则需要注释掉windows.cfg,否则会有冲突

以windows.cfg为模板,添加新的windows服务器

# cp /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/windows.cfg /usr/local/nagios/etc/servers/wintest.cfg

//修改配置中的host_name,IP地址等。

# /usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_nt -H 10.100.2.189 -p 12489 -s 123456 -v UPTIME


//测试客户端连通性(注意有特殊符号需要单引号),以下信息表示连接正常。


System Uptime - 20 day(s) 4 hour(s)11 minute(s) |uptime=29051

/usr/local/nagios/bin/nagios -v /usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg //测试配置

systemctl restart nagios //重启nagios服务


默认check_nt!MEMUSE!-w 80 –c 90监控的是物理内存和虚拟内存的总和,单独监控物理内存方法:

1) 修改Client的nsclient.ini文件三个选项:

[/settings/NRPE/server]下的insecure = true、verify mode = none、allow arguments = true

修改完成后,通过# /usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_nrpe -H 10.100.2.189测试连通性,

I (0.4.4.19 2015-12-08) seem to bedoing fine...表示连接正常,如果提示

CHECK_NRPE: Error - Couldnot complete SSL handshake.则表示未修改正确。

查看监控显示结果:

# /usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_nrpe -H 10.100.2.189 -p 5666 -c CheckMEM -a MaxWarn=80% MaxCrit=90% type=physicalShowAll

2) 修改Server的commands.cfg文件,定义物理内存监控服务

define command{

command_name check_winmem

command_line $USER1$/check_nrpe -H $HOSTADDRESS$ -p 5666-c CheckMEM -a MaxWarn=$ARG1$% MaxCrit=$ARG2$% ShowAll=long type=physical

}

3) 修改Server的客户端配置文件xenapp.cfg,定义监控内容

define service{

use generic-service

host_name xenapp

service_description PhysicalMemory

check_command check_winmem!80!90

}

4) 检测配置文件是否有错误:# /usr/local/nagios/bin/nagios -v /usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg

5) 重启nagios服务:# systemctl restart nagios


三、安装Cacti

1、下载软件包并安装

Cacti-0.8.8h:

http://www.cacti.net/downloads/cacti-0.8.8h.tar.gz

Cacti-spine-0.8.8h:

http://www.cacti.net/downloads/spine/cacti-spine-0.8.8h.tar.gz

官方安装手册:

http://docs.cacti.net/manual:088:1_installation.1_install_unix

配置安装环境:

#yum install httpd php php-mysql php-snmp php-xml mariadb mariadb-server

2、安装RRDtool工具

# yum install rrdtool

# rrdtool -h

3、安装SNMP服务

# yum install net-snmp net-snmp-utils

# systemctl enable snmpd

# systemctl start snmpd

4、安装cacti-spine(高效采集器)

# yum install net-snmp-devel mariadb-devel openssl-devel

# yum install autoconf automake binutils dos2unix gcc cpplibtool glibc-devel glibc-headers kernel-headers

# yum install wget patch

# tar zxvf cacti-spine-0.8.8h.tar.gz

# cd cacti-spine-0.8.8h/

# aclocal

# libtoolize –force

# autoheader

# autoconf

# automake

# ./configure

# make

# make install

# cp /usr/local/spine/bin/spine /usr/bin/spine

# cp /usr/local/spine/etc/spine.conf.dist /etc/spine.conf

# chown nagios.nagios /etc/spine.conf

# vim /etc/spine.conf

DB_Host localhost

DB_Database cacti

DB_User cactiuser

DB_Pass 123456

DB_Port 3306

# /usr/bin/spine //执行检查是否有错,安装完cacti后再执行

5、创建cacti数据库

启动数据库:

# systemctl enable mariadb

# systemctl start mariadb

# mysqladmin -uroot password 'rootpasswd' //Mariadb默认密码为空,先设置密码

# mysql -uroot -p //使用root权限账号登录

create database cacti; //创建数据库

grant all on cacti.* to cactiuser@'localhost' identified by '123456'; //授于本地登录权限

6、安装cacti程序

# tar zxvf cacti-0.8.8h.tar.gz

# mv cacti-0.8.8h /var/www/html/cacti

# mysql -u cactiuser -p cacti</var/www/html/cacti/cacti.sql //导入数据库

# chmod -R 777 /var/www/html/cacti/rra //授于rra和log文件夹777权限

# chmod -R 777 /var/www/html/cacti/log

# /usr/bin/spine //显示以下内容表示连接正常

SPINE:Using spine config file [/etc/spine.conf]

SPINE:Version 0.8.8h starting

SPINE:Time: 0.0455 s, Threads: 5, Hosts: 2

7、修改cacti全局配置文件

# vim /var/www/html/cacti/include/config.php

修改默认数据库名及连接数据库的用户名和密码

$database_default= "cacti";

$database_username= "cactiuser";

$database_password= "123456";

修改cacti系统时区,否则php会有告警日志信息

# vim /var/www/html/cacti/include/global.php //增加一行

date_default_timezone_set('Asia/Shanghai');

8、添加RRDtool抓图任务计划

# crontab -e

输入以下任务计划:

*/5 * * ** /usr/bin/php /var/www/html/cacti/poller.php >> /tmp/cacti_rrdtool.log2>&1

9、配置SELinux

测试php模块是否正常,http://10.100.2.158/phpinfo.php

#vim phpinfo.php //在html首页目录下

<?php phpinfo();?> //测试完成后删除文件

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

测试Mysql数据库的连接是否正常,http://10.100.2.158/mysqltest.php

#vim mysqltest.php //html首页目录下,名称随意起

<?php $link=mysql_connect(‘127.0.0.1’,’cactiuser’,’123456’);

If($link) echo “connect success!”;

else echo “connect fail!”;?>

测试数据库连接性前,需要修改sebool值:在SELinux启用情况下,php连接mysql测试会失败


#getsebool -a |grep httpd_can_network_connect //查看httpd进程连接模式,默认为off


#setsebool -P httpd_can_network_connect=1 //启用连接后即可测试正常

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

配置SELinux上下文,否则访问cacti时会提示禁止访问:

yum install policycoreutils-python //安装semanage工具,默认未安装

# ls -Zd cacti/ //查看当前cacti目录的上下文,为admin_home_t

# semanage fcontext -a -t httpd_sys_content_t '/var/www/html/cacti(/.*)?' //定义cacti目录的上下文规则

# restorecon -RFvv cacti/ //更改cacti目录的上下文

修改完成后重启httpd


vim /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/commands.cfg

# 'check_nt' command definition

define command{

command_name check_nt

command_line $USER1$/check_nt -H $HOSTADDRESS$ -p 12489 -s 123456 -v $ARG1$ $ARG2$

}

添加监控客户端:

vim /usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg

cfg_file=/usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/windows.cfg //启用windows监控,如果有添加启用cfg_dir=/usr/local/nagios/etc/servers目录则需要注释掉windows.cfg,否则会有冲突

以windows.cfg为模板,添加新的windows服务器

# cp /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/windows.cfg /usr/local/nagios/etc/servers/wintest.cfg

//修改配置中的host_name,IP地址等。

# /usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_nt -H 10.100.2.189 -p 12489 -s 123456 -v UPTIME

//测试客户端连通性(注意有特殊符号需要单引号),以下信息表示连接正常。

System Uptime - 20 day(s) 4 hour(s)11 minute(s) |uptime=29051

# /usr/local/nagios/bin/nagios -v /usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg //测试配置

# systemctl restart nagios //重启nagios服务


默认check_nt!MEMUSE!-w 80 –c 90监控的是物理内存和虚拟内存的总和,单独监控物理内存方法:

1) 修改Client的nsclient.ini文件三个选项:

[/settings/NRPE/server]下的insecure = true、verify mode = none、allow arguments = true

修改完成后,通过# /usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_nrpe -H 10.100.2.189测试连通性,

I (0.4.4.19 2015-12-08) seem to bedoing fine...表示连接正常,如果提示

CHECK_NRPE: Error - Couldnot complete SSL handshake.则表示未修改正确。

查看监控显示结果:

# /usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_nrpe -H 10.100.2.189 -p 5666 -c CheckMEM -a MaxWarn=80% MaxCrit=90% type=physicalShowAll

2) 修改Server的commands.cfg文件,定义物理内存监控服务

define command{

command_name check_winmem

command_line $USER1$/check_nrpe -H $HOSTADDRESS$ -p 5666-c CheckMEM -a MaxWarn=$ARG1$% MaxCrit=$ARG2$% ShowAll=long type=physical

}

3) 修改Server的客户端配置文件xenapp.cfg,定义监控内容

define service{

use generic-service

host_name xenapp

service_description PhysicalMemory

check_command check_winmem!80!90

}

4) 检测配置文件是否有错误:# /usr/local/nagios/bin/nagios -v /usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg

5) 重启nagios服务:# systemctl restart nagios



四、Nagios和Cacti整合

1、安装Ndoutils

NdoutilsNagios的一个插件,可以用来把nagios获取的数据导入mysql数据库中,也可以实现与cacti的插件NPC的集成。.

注:Nagios4.2.1至少需要Ndoutils2.1.0及以上版本,否则不兼容

下载Ndoutils

http://nchc.dl.sourceforge.net/project/nagios/ndoutils-2.x/ndoutils-2.1.1/ndoutils-2.1.1.tar.gz

安装Ndoutils:

# tar zxvf ndoutils-2.1.1.tar.gz

# cd ndoutils-2.1.1/

# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/nagios/ --enable-mysql --with-ndo2db-user=nagios --with-ndo2db-group=nagios

# make all

# make install


准备配置文件:

# cd db

# ./installdb -ucactiuser -p123456 -h localhost -d cacti

//导入mysql.sql,可省略,cacti的npc插件会自动生成相关数据库表。

# cd ..

# cp src/{ndomod-4x.o,ndo2db-4x,log2ndo,file2sock} /usr/local/nagios/bin/

//nagios是4.x的版本就使用-4x,如果是3.x版本则复制对应的-3x。

# cp config/ndo2db.cfg-sample /usr/local/nagios/etc/ndo2db.cfg

# cp config/ndomod.cfg-sample /usr/local/nagios/etc/ndomod.cfg

# cd /usr/local/nagios/etc

# chown nagios.nagiosndo2db.cfg ndomod.cfg

# chmod 664 ndo2db.cfgndomod.cfg

# cd /usr/local/nagios/bin/

# mv ndo2db-4x ndo2db

# mv ndomod-4x.o ndomod.o

# chown nagios.nagios *


修改配置文件:

# vim /usr/local/nagios/etc/ndo2db.cfg

socket_type=tcp

tcp_port=5668

db_servertype=mysql

db_host=localhost

db_port=3306

db_name=cacti

db_prefix=npc_

db_user=cactiuser

db_pass=123456 //密码不能加引号

debug_level=1


# vim /usr/local/nagios/etc/ndomod.cfg

output_type=tcpsocket

output=127.0.0.1


# vim/usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg

在末尾添加以下内容:

broker_module=/usr/local/nagios/bin/ndomod.o config_file=/usr/local/nagios/etc/ndomod.cfg

// broker_module和config_file放在一行,中间空格隔开。

修改以下选项:

event_broker_options=-1 //默认选项,无需修改。为nagios开启event broker

process_performance_data=1


启动守护进程和nagios:

# /usr/local/nagios/bin/ndo2db -c /usr/local/nagios/etc/ndo2db.cfg

# netstat –tnlp //可以查看5668端口处于监听状态

tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:5668 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 30411/ndo2db

# tail -20 /var/log/messages //查看是否有报错


新建启动脚本和服务,以便开机自动启动:

# vim /etc/rc.d/init.d/ndo2db //新建脚本,如下:

#!/bin/bash

#Start ndo2db service

/usr/local/nagios/bin/ndo2db -c /usr/local/nagios/etc/ndo2db.cfg

# chmod +x /etc/rc.d/init.d/ndo2db

# ln -s /etc/rc.d/init.d/ndo2db /etc/rc.d/rc2.d/S98ndo2db

# ln -s /etc/rc.d/init.d/ndo2db /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/S98ndo2db

# ln -s /etc/rc.d/init.d/ndo2db /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/S98ndo2db

//设置235运行级别自动运行(启动顺序98,nagios为99)


如果日志/var/log/messages有以下信息

错误:Sep 23 13:38:10nagios_cacti nagios: ndomod: Still unable to connect to data sink. 0 items lost, 368 queued items to flush.

原因:Ndoutils需要先启动才能再启动Nagios,否则会报错。

解决办法:

# systemctl stop nagios

# pkill ndo2db

#/usr/local/nagios/bin/ndo2db -c /usr/local/nagios/etc/ndo2db.cfg

# systemctl start nagios


2、安装Npc插件

全称Nagios Plugin for Cacti,将nagios的数据通过ndo2db导入到mysql数据库(前面设置的npc_开头的表),然后cacti读取数据库信息将nagios的结果通过NPC展示出来

下载插件:NPC

http://jaist.dl.sourceforge.net/project/gibtmirdas/npc-2.0.4.tar.gz

# tar zxvf npc-2.0.4.tar.gz

# mv npc /var/www/html/cacti/plugins/

# chown -R nagios.nagios /var/www/html/cacti/plugins/

# cd /var/www/html/cacti/plugins/

配置SELinux上下文,否则在插件管理页面会显示no plugins found:

# ls -Zd npc/ //查看当前npc上下文,为admin_home_t

# semanage fcontext -a -t httpd_sys_content_t '/var/www/html/cacti/plugins/npc(/.*)?' //定义npc上下文规则

# restorecon -RFvv npc/ //更改npc的上下文

登录cacti控制台,打开Plugin Management页面,找到Npc插件,点击install Plugin->enable Plugin,此时graphs旁边就有了npc选项了

wKioL1frhnPAzQ-yAAC-utYK5fE271.png

修改npc配置:Configuration->Settings->NPC,如下图:

勾选Remote Commands,输入Nagios Command File Path[/usr/local/nagios/var/rw/nagios.cmd]Nagios URL[http://10.100.2.158/nagios/],勾选Host IconsService IconsSave保存。

wKiom1frhtDDySvRAAFrQlAurtU754.png

重启相关服务:

# systemctl stop nagios

# systemctl restartmariadb

# systemctl restart httpd

# /usr/local/nagios/bin/ndo2db -c /usr/local/nagios//etc/ndo2db.cfg

# systemctl start nagios

# tail -20/var/log/messages //此时查看日志会有错误信息

修改mysql数据库表:

# mysql -ucactiuser -p

use cacti;

Nagios4.0及以上版本sql脚本(蓝色字体为4.0以下脚本):

CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS `npc_service_parentservices` (

`service_parentservice_id` int(11) NOT NULL auto_increment,

`instance_id` smallint(6) NOT NULL default '0',

`service_id` int(11) NOT NULL default '0',

`parent_service_object_id` int(11) NOT NULL default '0',

PRIMARY KEY (`service_parentservice_id`),

UNIQUE KEY `instance_id` (`service_id`,`parent_service_object_id`)

) ENGINE=MyISAM COMMENT='Parent services';

ALTER TABLE `npc_hostchecks` ADD COLUMN `long_output` varchar(8192) NOT NULL default '' AFTER `output`;

ALTER TABLE `npc_hoststatus` ADD COLUMN `long_output` varchar(8192) NOT NULL default '' AFTER `output`;

ALTER TABLE `npc_servicechecks` ADD COLUMN `long_output` varchar(8192) NOT NULL default '' AFTER `output`;

ALTER TABLE `npc_servicestatus` ADD COLUMN `long_output` varchar(8192) NOT NULL default '' AFTER `output`;

ALTER TABLE `npc_statehistory` ADD COLUMN `long_output` varchar(8192) NOT NULL default '' AFTER `output`;

ALTER TABLE `npc_eventhandlers` ADD COLUMN `long_output` varchar(8192) NOT NULL default '' AFTER `output`;

ALTER TABLE `npc_systemcommands` ADD COLUMN `long_output` varchar(8192) NOT NULL default '' AFTER `output`;

ALTER TABLE `npc_notifications` ADD COLUMN `long_output` varchar(8192) NOT NULL default '' AFTER `output`;

ALTER TABLE `npc_services` ADD COLUMN `importance` varchar(8192) NOT NULL default '' AFTER `icon_image_alt`;

ALTER TABLE `npc_hosts` ADD COLUMN `importance` varchar(8192) NOT NULL default '' AFTER `z_3d`;

ALTER TABLE `npc_contacts` ADD COLUMN `minimum_importance` varchar(8192) NOT NULL default '' AFTER `notify_host_downtime`;


wKioL1fweyTjfoySAAGj3fMU7s0891.jpg

3、安装Settings、Thold、Monitor、realtime等插件

下载地址:http://docs.cacti.net/plugins

解压缩后,移动到plugins目录,例如:

# tar zxvf settings-v0.71-1.tgz

# mv settings /var/www/html/cacti/plugins/ //其他插件类似

# chown -R nagios.nagios /var/www/html/cacti/plugins

# restorecon -RFvv /var/www/html/cacti/plugins

打开Plugin Management页面,选择相关插件Install Plugint->Enable Plugin

插件配置和使用:

1、 使用monitor插件

a. 打开“Console → Settings → Misc”,可以调整Monitor的各项配置。

例如:勾选“Show Icon Legend”可以在监控页面显示图例,“View”可以选用Tiles类型,以显示设备状态表格。

b. 为cacti添加新设备时,勾选上“Monitor Host”项。对已添加的设备可以通过“Management → Devices”进去修改。

c. 单击Web页面上方的“monitor”标签链接,可以进入查看各设备/主机的状态图示。

2、 使用realtime插件

安装完realtime,在每一个监控图边上,都会有一个小图标,此时点击这个小图标,不会出来实时的数据,会报“The Image Cache Directorydirectory does not exist. Please first create it and set permissions and thenattempt to open another realtime graph”。

提示出没有Cache目录以及权限等的错误,需要进一步配置后才能取到数据。

a. 设置Cache目录及权限

# cd /var/www/html/cacti/

# mkdir cache

# chown –R nagios.nagios cache

# chmod –R 777 cache

# semanage fcontext -a -t httpd_cache_t '/var/www/html/cacti/cache(/.*)?'

# restorecon -RFvv cache/

b. 登录cacti网页

打开“Console →Settings → Misc”,设置“Cache Diredtiory”为“/var/www/html/cacti/cache”,保存后会出现 [OK: DIRFOUND]

此时再点击上图的小图标就会出来数据了,如果启用SELinux,注意修改设置否则提示无写入权限。

3、 使用thold插件

使用thold之前先要配置email参数

a. 配置email参数

# yum install mailx,sendmail

# systemctl mask postfix

# systemctl enable sendmail

# systemctl start sendmail

wKiom1ghjP_hzF-iAAL-N8A-x-8008.jpg

b. 设置thold模板

c. 创建通知列表(可省略)

d. 创建告警模板

e. 告警的项


4、绘制Nagios监控图

基本流程:定义数据输入方法-定义数据模版-定义绘图模版

打开需要绘图服务的详细信息:

wKioL1ghjhXTpDHaAAA-tmO8rg4870.png

点击“Data Input Method”,选择Yes往cacti里引入一条数据输入脚本

wKioL1ghjkKjweSjAADHtcCK2kU326.png

此时在Cacti主控制台的Data Input Methods页面就有了一条新的记录

wKiom1ghjmeyL-jcAABg3o1d6qA902.png

下面Output Fields栏显示的是这个输入方法定义的输出字段名,下面要定义的数据模版就要引用这些字段(没有这些字段可以参考Unix – Get Load Average新增)

wKioL1ghjoyClCadAAB59MAW4IY499.png

在Console控制台的Data Templates页面,新建一个数据模板(可以通过已有模板复制),如下:

wKiom1ghjrfRXZH1AACeNPYtsOA166.png

输入新建模板的名称,Data Input Method改为上面新增的NPC - Perfdata - commission: CPU,勾选上Hourly(1 Minute Average),Step值改为60。另外注意检查Output Field的值和Data Source Item名称是否相对应。如下图:

wKioL1ghjt-CGzjrAADWoFCfC9U601.png

在Console的Graph Templates页面,新建一个绘图模板,方法同上,可以选择一条类似的模板复制生成,然后再修改。

wKioL1ghjwXQ_gMRAACUk2K2xnI388.png

中间Graph Item Inputs有三个数据源,这是绘图的三个输入数据项名称。每个数据项又是引用的上面Graph Item中的某项。如下图:

wKioL1ghjySRqHpdAABkSXELBJA491.png

分别打开Item # 1至# 6,修改Data Source为上面新建的相对应时间的数据源,如下:

wKiom1ghj0bAyJ8kAACM3puIz5s450.png

新增设备:同Cacti添加设备操作,在Devices页面,点击ADD添加

wKiom1ghj2uAHqoSAADGOGZXIsU859.png

再在Graph Trees添加主机

wKiom1ghj5OTnHDBAABK_q9V4K0193.png

然后在graphs控制台就可以看到新增加的绘制的图像了

wKioL1ghj7vQ_TaUAABzdW1uX0o483.png

把绘图添加到Graph Trees几分钟后就可以看到图表了,如果没有,检查下rra目录权限是否正确。或者直接用npc的那个脚本看能不能获取数据,在Data Input Methods里点开自己定义的数据输入方法,可以查到npc里自己这个服务的编号。然后用php -q 路径/perfdata.php --type=service --id=服务编号,看能不能获取到数据。如下:

wKiom1ghj-OwJSNMAAAPLP1eWfs426.png

整合完成后在NPC里查看监控图时显示不了,查看图片的URL地址发现路径不对,如下:http://10.100.2.158/graph_image.php?action=view&local_graph_id=17&rra_id=1

wKioL1ghkAzQoF7gAAA3Hp6v5Ag335.png

正确路径为:/cacti/graph_image.php

解决办法:修改/var/www/html/cacti/plugins/npc/目录下的以下js文件

js/src/monitoring/services/serviceDetail.js

js/src/monitoring/services/services.js

js/src/monitoring/hosts/hosts.js

js/src/monitoring/hosts/hostDetail.js

js/src/npc.js

js/npc-all-min.js

把/graph_image.php?这一串修改为:/cacti/graph_image.php?即添加/cacti/目录即可

可使用以下查找替换命令:

:1,$s/\/graph_image.php?/\/cacti\/graph_image.php?/gc

修改完成后清空浏览器缓存,再重新打开就可以看到图像了。


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