Chinaunix首页 | 论坛 | 博客
  • 博客访问: 873143
  • 博文数量: 376
  • 博客积分: 154
  • 博客等级: 入伍新兵
  • 技术积分: 1558
  • 用 户 组: 普通用户
  • 注册时间: 2011-10-13 08:42
文章分类

全部博文(376)

文章存档

2014年(11)

2013年(88)

2012年(260)

2011年(17)

分类: LINUX

2013-05-21 16:49:42

原文地址:UBIFS chinaunix -编译工具 作者:ai616818

 
工具支持
  使用UBI,需要UBI的一些工具,如ubiattach ubimkvol等,这些工具都包含在教新版的mtd-utils中,我下载了mtd-utils-1.2.0.tar.bz2,其中就包含了ubi的工具,只需进行交叉编译即可。但是,交叉编译mtd-utils需要zlib和lzo的支持,我分别下载了zlib-1.2.3.tar.gz和lzo-2.03.tar.gz,分别进行交叉编译并安装到交叉工具链中

交叉编译zlib-1.2.3.tar.gz
  解压后,进行配置编译即可,编译和安装命令:
CC=arm-vfp-linux-gnu-gcc ./configure --shared --prefix=/opt/nxp/gcc-4.3.2-glibc-2.7/arm-vfp-linux-gnu/
make
sudo make install
  其中,因为使用普通用户,所以make install需要sudo操作。

交叉编译lzo-2.03.tar.gz
  解压后进行配置和编译即可。
CC=arm-vfp-linux-gnu-gcc ./configure --host=arm-linux --prefix=/opt/nxp/gcc-4.3.2-glibc-2.7/arm-vfp-linux-gnu/
make
sudo make install

交叉编译mtd-utils-1.2.0
  这需要修改Makefile文件。修改./Makefile,将其中的CROSS指定为:
  8 CROSS=arm-vfp-linux-gnu-
  9 CC := $(CROSS)gcc

修改下列代码:
ifeq ($(origin CROSS),undefined)
 BUILDDIR := .
else
 Remove the trailing slash to make the directory name
  BUILDDIR := $(CROSS:-=)
endif
为:
#ifeq ($(origin CROSS),undefined)
  BUILDDIR := .
#else
# Remove the trailing slash to make the directory name
#  BUILDDIR := $(CROSS:-=)
#endif
 指定BUILDDIR为当前目录。

  
  修改./ubi-utils/Makefile文件,增加CROSS:
 11 CROSS=arm-vfp-linux-gnu-
 12 CC := $(CROSS)gcc

  修改./ubi-utils/new-utils/Makefile文件,增加CROSS:
 12 CROSS=arm-vfp-linux-gnu-
 13 CC := $(CROSS)gcc

然后输入 make WITHOUT_XATTR=1 进行编译,编译完毕,可以得到flash_erase等工具。
再进入ubi-utils/目录,输入make,将会得到ubi的工具,将需要的工具复制添加到目标板的根文件系统中即可。我是放在rootfs/usr/bin目录下。
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
使用ubifs
  我是通过NFS启动系统的,在系统启动后操作板子的NAND FLASH分区。
 
[root@zlg /]# more /proc/partitions
major minor  #blocks  name

  31     0       1536 mtdblock0
  31     1        256 mtdblock1
  31     2       4096 mtdblock2
  31     3      16384 mtdblock3
  31     4     239616 mtdblock4

  一共有5个mtd分区,我想将mtdblock4做为ubifs分区使用。
  先擦除FLASH 分区mtd4:
[root@zlg /]# flash_eraseall /dev/mtd4
  然后使用ubiattach:
[root@zlg /]# ubiattach /dev/ubi_ctrl -m 4????????????????attach什么意思,
UBI: attaching mtd4 to ubi0
UBI: physical eraseblock size:   131072 bytes (128 KiB)
UBI: logical eraseblock size:    129024 bytes
UBI: smallest flash I/O unit:    2048
UBI: sub-page size:              512
UBI: VID header offset:          512 (aligned 512)
UBI: data offset:                2048
UBI: empty MTD device detected
UBI: create volume table (copy #1)
UBI: create volume table (copy #2)
UBI: attached mtd4 to ubi0
UBI: MTD device name:            "smartarm3250-rootfs"
UBI: MTD device size:            234 MiB
UBI: number of good PEBs:        1870
UBI: number of bad PEBs:         2
UBI: max. allowed volumes:       128
UBI: wear-leveling threshold:    4096
UBI: number of internal volumes: 1
UBI: number of user volumes:     0
UBI: available PEBs:             1848
UBI: total number of reserved PEBs: 22
UBI: number of PEBs reserved for bad PEB handling: 18
UBI: max/mean erase counter: 0/0
UBI: background thread "ubi_bgt0d" started, PID 609
UBI device number 0, total 1870 LEBs (241274880 bytes, 230.1 MiB), available 1848 LEBs (238436352 bytes, 227.4 MiB), LEB size 129024 bytes (126.0 KiB)
  提示available 1848 LEBs (238436352 bytes, 227.4 MiB),238436352字节可用,但是ubi工具只识别KiB MiB GiB,并且只识别整数,所以需要进行换算
238436352 bytes = 232848KiB

  再使用ubimkvol在ubi设备上创建ubi卷: 
[root@zlg /]# ubimkvol /dev/ubi0 -N rootfs -s 232848KiB
Volume ID 0, size 1848 LEBs (238436352 bytes, 227.4 MiB), LEB size 129024 bytes (126.0 KiB), dynamic, name "rootfs", alignment 1
  提示创建ubi0成功,卷名为rootfs。 


  最后挂载:
[root@zlg /]# mount -t ubifs ubi0_0 /mnt 或者
mount -t ubifs ubi0:rootfs /mnt

UBIFS: default file-system created
UBIFS: background thread "ubifs_bgt0_0" started, PID 619
UBIFS: mounted UBI device 0, volume 0, name "rootfs"
UBIFS: file system size: 237017088 bytes (231462 KiB, 226 MiB, 1837 LEBs)
UBIFS: journal size: 11870208 bytes (11592 KiB, 11 MiB, 92 LEBs)
UBIFS: default compressor: LZO
UBIFS: media format 4, latest format 4

  挂载上之后可用df查看:
[root@zlg /]# df
Filesystem           1k-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
rootfs                39994768  26688892  11274260  70% /
/dev/root             39994768  26688892  11274260  70% /
tmpfs                    30636        24     30612   0% /dev
shm                      30636         0     30636   0% /dev/shm
df: /mnt/rwfs: No such file or directory
ubi0:rootfs             217224         0    212160   0% /mnt
 
 使用完毕可以卸载:
[root@zlg /]# umount /mnt/
UBIFS: un-mount UBI device 0, volume 0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  可以通过NFS启动系统,挂载ubi分区后将根文件系统解压到ubi中,然后设置参数,使用ubifs作为文件系统,设置参数:

setenv bootargs ubi.mtd=4 root=ubi0:rootfs rootfstype=ubifs console=ttyS0,115200 mem=64M

  启动系统即可,如下是启动信息:

U-Boot 1.3.3 (May  5 2009 - 13:04:13)

DRAM:  64 MB

NAND:  256 MiB

In:    serial

Out:   serial

Err:   serial

Hit any key to stop autoboot:  0

U-Boot$

U-Boot$ setenv bootargs ubi.mtd=4 root=ubi0:rootfs rootfstype=ubifs console=ttyS0,115200 mem=64M

U-Boot$ ru yboot


NAND read: device 0 offset 0x200000, size 0x1b5968


Reading data from 0x3b5800 -- 100% complete.

 1792360 bytes read: OK

## Booting kernel from Legacy Image at 81000000 ...

   Image Name:   Linux-2.6.27.8

   Image Type:   ARM Linux Kernel Image (uncompressed)

   Data Size:    1792296 Bytes =  1.7 MB

   Load Address: 80008000

   Entry Point:  80008000

   Verifying Checksum ... OK

   Loading Kernel Image ... OK

OK


Starting kernel ...


Uncompressing Linux..................................................................................... done, booting the kernel.

Linux version 2.6.27.8 (chenxibing@localhost.localdomain) (gcc version 4.3.2 (crosstool-NG-1.3.1) ) #8 PREEMPT Fri Nov 6 05:59:13 CST 2009

CPU: ARM926EJ-S [41069264] revision 4 (ARMv5TEJ), cr=00053177

Machine: SmartARM3250 board with the LPC3250 Microcontroller

Memory policy: ECC disabled, Data cache writeback

CPU0: D VIVT write-back cache

CPU0: I cache: 32768 bytes, associativity 4, 32 byte lines, 256 sets

CPU0: D cache: 32768 bytes, associativity 4, 32 byte lines, 256 sets

Built 1 zonelists in Zone order, mobility grouping on.  Total pages: 16256

Kernel command line: ubi.mtd=4 root=ubi0:rootfs rootfstype=ubifs console=ttyS0,115200 mem=64M

PID hash table entries: 256 (order: 8, 1024 bytes)

Console: colour dummy device 80x30

Dentry cache hash table entries: 8192 (order: 3, 32768 bytes)

Inode-cache hash table entries: 4096 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)

Memory: 64MB = 64MB total

Memory: 61096KB available (3416K code, 230K data, 112K init)

Calibrating delay loop... 103.83 BogoMIPS (lpj=519168)

Mount-cache hash table entries: 512

CPU: Testing write buffer coherency: ok

net_namespace: 288 bytes

NET: Registered protocol family 16

Invalid board descriptor!

LPC32XX DMA driver

SCSI subsystem initialized

NET: Registered protocol family 2

IP route cache hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)

TCP established hash table entries: 2048 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)

TCP bind hash table entries: 2048 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)

TCP: Hash tables configured (established 2048 bind 2048)

TCP reno registered

NET: Registered protocol family 1

NetWinder Floating Point Emulator V0.97 (double precision)

JFFS2 version 2.2. (NAND) © 2001-2006 Red Hat, Inc.

yaffs Sep  5 2009 09:21:41 Installing.

msgmni has been set to 119

io scheduler noop registered

io scheduler anticipatory registered

io scheduler deadline registered

io scheduler cfq registered (default)

CLCD: ZHIYUAN LCD hardware, QVGA portrait display

Console: switching to colour frame buffer device 40x30

Serial: 8250/16550 driver4 ports, IRQ sharing disabled

serial8250.0: ttyS0 at MMIO 0x40090000 (irq = 9) is a 16550A

console [ttyS0] enabled

serial8250.0: ttyS1 at MMIO 0x40080000 (irq = 7) is a 16550A

serial8250.0: ttyS2 at MMIO 0x40088000 (irq = 8) is a 16550A

serial8250.0: ttyS3 at MMIO 0x40098000 (irq = 10) is a 16550A

lpc32xx_hsuart.0: ttyTX0 at MMIO 0x40014000 (irq = 26) is a lpc32xx_hsuart

lpc32xx_hsuart.0: ttyTX1 at MMIO 0x40018000 (irq = 25) is a lpc32xx_hsuart

lpc32xx_hsuart.0: ttyTX2 at MMIO 0x4001c000 (irq = 24) is a lpc32xx_hsuart

loop: module loaded

LPC32XX_mii_bus: probed

eth0: LPC32XX mac at 0x31060000 irq 29

eth0: attached PHY driver [Generic PHY] (mii_bus:phy_addr=0:00, irq=-1)

Uniform Multi-Platform E-IDE driver

ide0 at 0xc4866020-0xc486602e,0xc486602e on irq 86

Driver 'sd' needs updating - please use bus_type methods

NAND device: Manufacturer ID: 0xec, Chip ID: 0xda (Samsung NAND 256MiB 3,3V 8-bit)

Scanning device for bad blocks

Bad eraseblock 0 at 0x00000000

Bad eraseblock 1 at 0x00020000

Bad eraseblock 2 at 0x00040000

Bad eraseblock 152 at 0x01300000

Bad eraseblock 571 at 0x04760000

Bad eraseblock 1594 at 0x0c740000

Creating 5 MTD partitions on "lpc32xx_nand":

0x00000000-0x00180000 : "smartarm3250-boot"

0x00180000-0x001c0000 : "smartarm3250-ubt-prms"

0x00200000-0x00600000 : "smartarm3250-kernel"

0x00600000-0x01600000 : "smartarm3250-safefs"

0x01600000-0x10000000 : "smartarm3250-rootfs"

UBI: attaching mtd4 to ubi0

UBI: physical eraseblock size:   131072 bytes (128 KiB)

UBI: logical eraseblock size:    129024 bytes

UBI: smallest flash I/O unit:    2048

UBI: sub-page size:              512

UBI: VID header offset:          512 (aligned 512)

UBI: data offset:                2048

UBI: attached mtd4 to ubi0

UBI: MTD device name:            "smartarm3250-rootfs"

UBI: MTD device size:            234 MiB

UBI: number of good PEBs:        1870

UBI: number of bad PEBs:         2

UBI: max. allowed volumes:       128

UBI: wear-leveling threshold:    4096

UBI: number of internal volumes: 1

UBI: number of user volumes:     1

UBI: available PEBs:             0

UBI: total number of reserved PEBs: 1870

UBI: number of PEBs reserved for bad PEB handling: 18

UBI: max/mean erase counter: 2/1

UBI: background thread "ubi_bgt0d" started, PID 262

at25 spi0.0: 32 KByte at25256a eeprom, pagesize 64

mice: PS/2 mouse device common for all mice

input: LPC32xx Touchscreen as /class/input/input0

rtc-lpc32xx rtc-lpc32xx: rtc core: registered rtc-lpc32xx as rtc0

i2c /dev entries driver

PNX4008-WDT: PNX4008 Watchdog Timer: heartbeat 19 sec

mmci-pl18x: DMA buffer(10000 bytes), P:0x839e0000, V:0xffc1a000

mmc0: MMCI rev 0 cfg 00 at 0x0000000020098000 irq 15,13

Advanced Linux Sound Architecture Driver Version 1.0.17.

ASoC version 0.13.2

UDA1380 Audio Codec 0.6<3>i2c-adapter i2c-4: Master timed out. stat = 0000, cntrl = 0000. Resetting master...

ALSA device list:

  No soundcards found.

TCP cubic registered

NET: Registered protocol family 17

RPC: Registered udp transport module.

RPC: Registered tcp transport module.

ieee80211: 802.11 data/management/control stack, git-1.1.13

ieee80211: Copyright (C) 2004-2005 Intel Corporation

VFP support v0.3: implementor 41 architecture 1 part 10 variant 9 rev 1

rtc-lpc32xx rtc-lpc32xx: setting system clock to 2033-04-20 18:46:57 UTC (1997635617)

UBIFS: mounted UBI device 0, volume 0, name "rootfs"

UBIFS: file system size: 237017088 bytes (231462 KiB, 226 MiB, 1837 LEBs)

UBIFS: journal size: 11870208 bytes (11592 KiB, 11 MiB, 92 LEBs)

UBIFS: default compressor: LZO

UBIFS: media format 4, latest format 4

VFS: Mounted root (ubifs filesystem).

Freeing init memory: 112K

UBIFS: background thread "ubifs_bgt0_0" started, PID 304

init started: BusyBox v1.11.2 ()

starting pid 306, tty '': '/etc/rc.d/rcS'

Mounting /proc and /sys

Starting the hotplug events dispatcher udevd

Synthesizing initial hotplug events

Setting the hostname to zlg

Mounting filesystems

mount: mounting usbfs on /proc/bus/usb failed: No such file or directory

Running sysctl

Setting up networking on loopback device:

Setting up networking on eth0:

Adding static route for default gateway to 192.168.7.1:

Setting nameserver to 192.168.7.1 in /etc/resolv.conf:

Starting inetd:

Starting the port mapper:

Starting the ssh server:

starting pid 605, tty '': '-/bin/sh'

[root@zlg /]# 

[root@zlg /]# ls

bin      etc      linuxrc  proc     sys      usr

boot     home     mnt      root     tmp      var

dev      lib      opt      sbin     ubifs

[root@zlg /]# df

Filesystem           1k-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on

rootfs                  217224     68612    143552  32% /

ubi0:rootfs             217224     68612    143552  32% /

tmpfs                    30636        24     30612   0% /dev

shm                      30636         0     30636   0% /dev/shm

rwfs                       512         0       512   0% /mnt/rwfs


与YAFFS2测试对比:
  从NAND FLASH中读取和复制一个文件,同样大小,分别使用YAFFS2和UBIFS系统的对比情况:
[root@nxp mp3]# ls -la bh_48128.mp3
-rw-r--r--    1 user     user      5689344 Feb 29  2008 bh_48128.mp3
  文件大小差不多是5M多。
  yaffs2的系统,测试时间是9秒钟:
[root@nxp mp3]# time cp bh_48128.mp3 bh_48128-2.mp3
real    0m 9.28s
user    0m 0.01s
sys     0m 9.26s


  ubifs系统,测试时间差不多4秒多一点。
[root@zlg mp3]# time cp bh_48128.mp3 bh_48128-2.mp3
real    0m4.130s
user    0m0.000s
sys     0m2.810s
从这里就可以看出UBIFS速度远比YAFFS2快。
  

另外,UBIFS还采用了压缩,在PC上大约110MB的rootfs,固化到UBIFS分区后大约60多MB。

 
 
 
阅读(1162) | 评论(0) | 转发(0) |
给主人留下些什么吧!~~