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分类: LINUX

2015-04-07 14:52:15

1          编写目的

在如今大数据的环境中,磁盘的性能和稳定性是非常重要的一个业务因素。在Linux系统中,smartctl是较为常用的磁盘检测工具。

本文基于Linux系统中smartctl进行分析,目的在于说明相关工具的使用,并对SMART(Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology)做一些分析。

2          术语、定义和缩略语

2.1         术语、定义

本文使用的专用术语、定义,见表2.1

2.1

术语/定义

含义

SMART

Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology

2.2         缩略语

本文件应用了以下缩略语,见表2.2

2.2

缩略语

   

中文含义

SMART

Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology

自监察分析及报告技术

 

 

 

 

 

 

3          smartctl

smartctlsmartmontools-5.38-2.el5 rpm中的一个命令行工具,可以执行SMART任务:打印SMART self-testerror报告,开启或关闭SMART自动测试,触发磁盘self-test

语法

       smartctl  [options]  device

device

"/dev/hd[a-t]"    IDE/ATA 磁盘

"/dev/sd[a-z]"    SCSI devices磁盘。注意,对于SATA磁盘,由于是通过libata

库来访问,所以要增加参数"-d  ata"

3.1         [options]

       参数按照不同的类型来分类。

3.1.1          显示信息 参数:

-h           帮助信息

-V          版本信息

-i            打印基本信息(磁盘设备号、序列号、固件版本

-a      打印磁盘所有的SMART信息

3.1.2          运行时行为 参数:

-q  TYPE     指定输出的安静模式。

TYPE可以有3种选择:

                       eorsonly            只打印错误日志。

                       slent                  有任何打印。

                       nserial        不打印序列号

       -d  TYPE     指定磁盘的类型。如果没有指定,smartctl会根据磁盘的名字来

猜测磁盘类型。

-T  TYPE     指定当发生错误时,smartctl的容忍程度,是否继续运行。

                     TYPE可以有4种选择:

                       conservative      一有错就会退出

                       normal        如果必须支持的SMART命令失败,则退出

                       permissive     忽略一次必须支持的SMART命令失败

                       verypermissive  忽略所有必须支持的SMART命令失败

-b  TYPE     指定当发生校验错误时,smartctl的动作。

                     TYPE3种选择:

                       warn          发出警告,继续执行

                       exit           退出smartctl

                       ignore        不发出告警,继续执行      

-r  TYPE      smartmontools开发人员相关。

-n  POWERMODE    指定当磁盘处于节能模式时,smartctl是否继续检查,

默认是不检查。

POWERMODE4种选择:

  never   检查

  sleep    除了sleep模式,检查。

  standby  除了sleepstandby模式,检查。

  idle      除了sleepstandbyidle模式,见车。

3.1.3          SMART功能开关 参数:

-s  on/off      打开或关闭磁盘的SMART功能

-o  on/off      打开或关闭SMART自动离线检测,该功能每4小时就会自动扫描磁盘是

否有缺陷。

-S  on/off   打开或关闭“自动保存厂商指定属性”功能。

3.1.4          SMART 读和显示数据 参数

-H          报告磁盘的是否健康。如果报告不健康,则说明磁盘已经损坏或会在24小时

内损坏。

-c           显示磁盘支持的普通SMART功能,以及这些功能当前的状态。

-A          显示磁盘支持的厂商指定SMART特性。这些特性的编号从1-253,并且有指

定的名字。

-l  TYPE      指定显示的log类型。

                     TYPE4种选择:

                     error             只显示error  log

                     selftest    只显示selftest  log

                     selective 只显示selective  self-test  log

                     directory 只显示Log  Directory

       -v  N,OPTION    显示厂商指定SMART特性N时,使用厂商相关的显示方式。

-F  TYPE     设置smartctl的行为,当出现一些已知但还没有解决的硬件或软件bug时,

smartctl应该怎么做。

-P  TYPE     设置smartctl是否对磁盘使用数据库中已有的参数。

3.1.5          SMART 离线测试、自测试 参数

-t  TEST      立刻执行测试,可以和-C参数一起使用。

                     TEST可以有以下几个选择:

                     offline  离线测试。可以在挂载文件系统的磁盘上使用

                     short   短时间测试。可以在挂载文件系统的磁盘上使用。

                     long   长时间测试。可以在挂载文件系统的磁盘上使用。

                     conveyance  [ATA only]传输zi测试。可以在挂载文件系统的磁盘上使用。

                     select, N-M    

select, N+SIZE  [ATA only]有选择性测试,测试磁盘的部分LBAN表示

LBA编号,M表示结束LBA编号,SIZE表示测试的LBA

范围。

-C  captive模式下运行测试。

注意:(1-C必须配合-t一起使用,但如果是-t offline,则-C不生效。

        2-C会使得磁盘很忙,所以最好是在没有挂载文件系统的磁盘上使用。

-X  中断no-captive模式下运行的测试。

3.2         常用example

3.2.1          查看当前整体健康状态

查看/dev/sda当前整体监控状态。PASSED表示健康,否则意味着磁盘已经故障,或很快就会发生故障。

 smartctl  -H  /dev/sda

 

3.2.2          查看所有信息

打印/dev/sda所有的SMART信息。

martctl  -a  /dev/sda

 

相当于依次执行:

smartctl  –i  /dev/sda  

smartctl  -c  /dev/sda  

smartctl  -A  /dev/sda  

smartctl  -l  error  /dev/sda

smartctl  -l  selftest  /dev/sda

smartctl  -l  selective  /dev/sda

3.2.3          /SMART功能

打开或关闭/dev/sda SMART功能。

smartctl  -s  on/off  /dev/sda

 

查看当前SMART功能是否开启,可以使用 –i 参数。

smartctl  -i  /dev/sda

3.2.4          离线测试

/dev/sda进行离线测试,它的结果主要用来更新SMART 属性。

smartctl  -t  offline  /dev/sda

3.2.5           短时间测试

/dev/sda进行短时间测试。

smartctl  -t  short  /dev/sda

3.2.5.1         观察测试进度

通过-c 参数,可以观察到测试的进度:

# smartctl -c    /dev/sda

Self-test execution status:      ( 242) Self-test routine in progress...

                                               20% of test remaining.

3.2.5.2         观察测试结果

通过-l selftest 参数,可以看到/dev/sda测试的结果记录:

#1”代表的那一次测试,Completed without error表示完成,没有错误。

#2”代表的那一次测试,Aborted by host表示测试被用户终止,还有90%没有完成。

 

# smartctl -l selftest    /dev/sda

...

Num  Test_Description  Status                  Remaining  LifeTime(hours)  LBA_of_first_error

# 1  Short offline       Completed without error   00%        9535         -

# 2  Extended offline    Aborted by host          90%        9534         -

...

3.2.6          查看SMART属性值

通过-A参数,可以看到/dev/sda SMART属性值。

smartctl  -A  /dev/sda

3.4         SMART 属性

使用smartctl  -A  /dev/sda能看到很多磁盘的SMART  属性,可以知道磁盘是否健康。

下面是一个列表,可以知道每个属性的具体含义:

ID

Hex

Attribut name

Description

01

0x01

Read Error Rate

(Vendor specific raw value.) Stores data related to the rate of hardware read errors that occurred when reading data from a disk surface. The raw value has different structure for different vendors and is often not meaningful as a decimal number.

02

0x02

Throughput Performance

Overall (general) throughput performance of a hard disk drive. If the value of this attribute is decreasing there is a high probability that there is a problem with the disk.

03

0x03

Spin-Up Time

Average time of spindle spin up (from zero RPM to fully operational [millisecs]).

04

0x04

Start/Stop Count

A tally of spindle start/stop cycles. The spindle turns on, and hence the count is increased, both when the hard disk is turned on after having before been turned entirely off (disconnected from power source) and when the hard disk returns from having previously been put to sleep mode.

05

0x05

Reallocated Sectors Count

Count of reallocated sectors. When the hard drive finds a read/write/verification error, it marks that sector as "reallocated" and transfers data to a special reserved area (spare area). This process is also known as remapping, and reallocated sectors are called "remaps". The raw value normally represents a count of the bad sectors that have been found and remapped. Thus, the higher the attribute value, the more sectors the drive has had to reallocate. This allows a drive with bad sectors to continue operation; however, a drive which has had any reallocations at all is significantly more likely to fail in the near future.While primarily used as a metric of the life expectancy of the drive, this number also affects performance. As the count of reallocated sectors increases, the read/write speed tends to become worse because the  is forced to seek to the reserved area whenever a remap is accessed. A workaround which will preserve drive speed at the expense of capacity is to create a  over the region which contains remaps and instruct the  to not use that partition.

06

0x06

Read Channel Margin

Margin of a channel while reading data. The function of this attribute is not specified.

07

0x07

Seek Error Rate

(Vendor specific raw value.) Rate of seek errors of the magnetic heads. If there is a partial failure in the mechanical positioning system, then seek errors will arise. Such a failure may be due to numerous factors, such as damage to a servo, or thermal widening of the hard disk. The raw value has different structure for different vendors and is often not meaningful as a decimal number.

08

0x08

Seek Time Performance

Average performance of seek operations of the magnetic heads. If this attribute is decreasing, it is a sign of problems in the mechanical subsystem.

09

0x09

 (POH)

Count of hours in power-on state. The raw value of this attribute shows total count of hours (or minutes, or seconds, depending on manufacturer) in power-on state.

10

0x0A

Spin Retry Count

Count of retry of spin start attempts. This attribute stores a total count of the spin start attempts to reach the fully operational speed (under the condition that the first attempt was unsuccessful). An increase of this attribute value is a sign of problems in the hard disk mechanical subsystem.

11

0x0B

Recalibration Retries orCalibration Retry Count

This attribute indicates the count that recalibration was requested (under the condition that the first attempt was unsuccessful). An increase of this attribute value is a sign of problems in the hard disk mechanical subsystem.

12

0x0C

Power Cycle Count

This attribute indicates the count of full hard disk power on/off cycles.

13

0x0D

Soft Read Error Rate

Uncorrected read errors reported to the operating system.

180

0xB4

Unused Reserved Block Count Total

"Pre-Fail" Attribute used at least in HP devices.

183

0xB7

SATA Downshift Error Count

Western Digital and Samsung attribute.

184

0xb8

End-to-End error / IOEDC    

This attribute is a part of 's SMART IV technology, as well as part of other vendors' IO Error Detection and Correction schemas, and it contains a count of parity errors which occur in the data path to the media via the drive's cache RAM.

185

0xB9

Head Stability

Western Digital attribute.

186

0xBA

Induced Op-Vibration Detection

Western Digital attribute.

187

0xBB

Reported Uncorrectable Errors

The count of errors that could not be recovered using hardware ECC .

188

0xBC

Command Timeout

The count of aborted operations due to HDD timeout. Normally this attribute value should be equal to zero and if the value is far above zero, then most likely there will be some serious problems with power supply or an oxidized data cable.

189

0xBD

High Fly Writes

HDD producers implement a Fly Height Monitor that attempts to provide additional protections for write operations by detecting when a recording head is flying outside its normal operating range. If an unsafe fly height condition is encountered, the write process is stopped, and the information is rewritten or reallocated to a safe region of the hard drive. This attribute indicates the count of these errors detected over the lifetime of the drive.

This feature is implemented in most modern Seagate drives and some of Western Digital’s drives, beginning with the WD Enterprise WDE18300 and WDE9180 Ultra2 SCSI hard drives, and will be included on all future WD Enterprise products.

 

190

0xBE

Airflow Temperature (WDC) resp.Airflow Temperature Celsius (HP)

Airflow temperature on Western Digital HDs (Same as temp. [C2], but current value is 50 less for some models. Marked as obsolete.)

191

0xBF

G-sense Error Rate

The count of errors resulting from externally-induced shock & vibration.

192

0xC0

Power-off Retract Countor Emergency Retract Cycle Count(Fujitsu)

Count of times the heads are loaded off the media. Heads can be unloaded without actually powering off.

193

0xC1

Load Cycle Count orLoad/Unload Cycle Count(Fujitsu)

Count of load/unload cycles into head landing zone position.

The typical lifetime rating for laptop (2.5-in) hard drives is 300,000 to 600,000 load cycles. Some laptop drives are programmed to unload the heads whenever there has not been any activity for about five seconds.Many Linux installations write to the file system a few times a minute in the background. As a result, there may be 100 or more load cycles per hour, and the load cycle rating may be exceeded in less than a year

 

194

0xC2

Temperatureresp.Temperature Celsius

Current internal temperature.

195

0xC3

Hardware ECC Recovered

(Vendor specific raw value.) The raw value has different structure for different vendors and is often not meaningful as a decimal number.

196

0xC4

Reallocation Event Count

Count of remap operations. The raw value of this attribute shows the total count of attempts to transfer data from reallocated sectors to a spare area. Both successful & unsuccessful attempts are counted.

197

0xC5

Current Pending Sector Count

Count of "unstable" sectors (waiting to be remapped, because of read errors). If an unstable sector is subsequently read successfully, this value is decreased and the sector is not remapped. Read errors on a sector will not remap the sector (since it might be readable later); instead, the drive firmware remembers that the sector needs to be remapped, and remaps it the next time it's written.

198

0xC6

Uncorrectable Sector Countor

Offline Uncorrectableor

Off-Line Scan Uncorrectable Sector Count

 

The total count of uncorrectable errors when reading/writing a sector. A rise in the value of this attribute indicates defects of the disk surface and/or problems in the mechanical subsystem.

199

0xC7

UltraDMA CRC Error Count

The count of errors in data transfer via the interface cable as determined by ICRC (Interface Cyclic Redundancy Check).

200

0xC8

Multi-Zone Error Rate

The count of errors found when writing a sector. The higher the value, the worse the disk's mechanical condition is.

200

0xC8

Write Error Rate (Fujitsu)

The total count of errors when writing a sector.

201

0xC9

Soft Read Error Rate or

TA Counter Detected

 

Count of off-track errors.

202

0xCA

Data Address Mark errorsor

TA Counter Increased

 

Count of Data Address Mark errors (or vendor-specific).

203

0xCB

Run Out Cancel

Count of ECC errors

204

0xCC

Soft ECC Correction

Count of errors corrected by software ECC

205

0xCD

Thermal Asperity Rate (TAR)

Count of errors due to high temperature.

206

0xCE

Flying Height

Height of heads above the disk surface. A flying height that's too low increases the chances of a head crash while a flying height that's too high increases the chances of a read/write error.

207

0xCF

Spin High Current

Amount of surge current used to spin up the drive.

208

0xD0

Spin Buzz

Count of buzz routines needed to spin up the drive due to insufficient power.

209

0xD1

Offline Seek Performance

Drive’s seek performance during its internal tests.

210

0xD2

Unkonw

(found in a Maxtor 6B200M0 200GB and Maxtor 2R015H1 15GB disks)

211

0xD3

Vibration During Write

Vibration During Write

212

0xD4

Shock During Write

Shock During Write

220

0xDC

Disk Shift

Distance the disk has shifted relative to the spindle (usually due to shock or temperature). Unit of measure is unknown.

222

0xDE

Loaded Hours

Time spent operating under data load (movement of magnetic head armature)

223

0xDF

Load/Unload Retry Count

Count of times head changes position.

224

0xE0

Load Friction

Resistance caused by friction in mechanical parts while operating.

225

0xE1

Load/Unload Cycle Count

Total count of load cycles

226

0xE2

Load 'In'-time

Total time of loading on the magnetic heads actuator (time not spent in parking area).

227

0xE3

Torque Amplification Count

Count of attempts to compensate for platter speed variations

228

0xE4

Power-Off Retract Cycle

The count of times the magnetic armature was retracted automatically as a result of cutting power.

230

0xE6

GMR Head Amplitude

Amplitude of "thrashing" (distance of repetitive forward/reverse head motion)

231

0xE7

Temperature

Drive Temperature

232

0xE8

Endurance Remaining

Number of physical erase cycles completed on the drive as a percentage of the maximum physical erase cycles the drive is designed to endure

232

0xE8

Available Reserved Space

Intel SSD reports the number of available reserved space as a percentage of reserved space in a brand new SSD.

233

0xE9

Power-On Hours

Number of hours elapsed in the power-on state.

233

0xE9

Media Wearout Indicator

Intel SSD reports a normalized value of 100 (when the SSD is new) and declines to a minimum value of 1. It decreases while the NAND erase cycles increase from 0 to the maximum-rated cycles.

240

0xF0

Head Flying Hours

Time while head is positioning

240

0xF0

Transfer Error Rate(Fujitsu)

Count of times the link is reset during a data transfer.

241

0xF1

Total LBAs Written

Total count of LBAs written

242

0xF2

Total LBAs Read

Total count of LBAs read.
Some S.M.A.R.T. utilities will report a negative number for the raw value since in reality it has 48 bits rather than 32.

250

0xFA

Read Error Retry Rate

Count of errors while reading from a disk

254

0xFE

Free Fall Protection

ount of "Free Fall Events" detected

 

3.5         SMART self-test

使用smartctl  –t  offline/short/long   可以指定磁盘进行自测。

offline

这个是默认的自测。

short

       短时自测的目的是快速确认磁盘是否故障。

       测试过程有很多项目,都是磁盘厂商自定义的,比如下面的项目:

a)       电气测试项目,测试磁盘内部的电路。具体测试细节有磁盘厂商自己指定,比如:

A)     缓存测试。

B)     读、写电路测试。

C)     读、写磁头测试。

b)      寻道、伺服测试项目,测试磁盘在数据磁道上的寻找和伺服能。

c)       读、校验测试项目,测试磁盘对部分或全盘的读能力。

long

       称为扩展的自测试。测试的项目和short类型,但是时间长得多。

 

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