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2012-08-12 17:32:30

原文地址:cpio linux 命令说明 作者:oychw

cpio  linux 命令说明

参考资料

l         《鸟哥的 Linux 私房菜》之 “档案的压缩与打包

l         Linux 基础教程(1) 操作系统基础》第14

 

简介

[root@linux ~]# cpio -covB  > [file|device] <==备份

[root@linux ~]# cpio -icduv < [file|device] <==还原

参数:

-o :将数据 copy 输出到档案或装置上

-i :将数据自档案或装置 copy 出来系统当中

-t :查看 cpio 建立的档案或装置的内容

-c :一种较新的 portable format 方式储存

-v :让储存的过程中文件名称可以在屏幕上显示

-B :让预设的 Blocks 可以增加至 5120 bytes ,预设是 512 bytes

   这样的好处是可以让大档案的储存速度加快(请参考 i-nodes 的观念)

-d :自动建立目录!由于 cpio 的内容可能不是在同一个目录内,

     如此的话在反备份的过程会有问题! 这个时候加上 -d 的话,

     就可以自动的将需要的目录建立起来了!

-u :自动的将较新的档案覆盖较旧的档案!

范例:

范例一:将所有系统上的数据通通写入磁带机内!

[root@linux ~]# find / -print | cpio -covB > /dev/st0

# 一般来说,使用 SCSI 接口的磁带机,代号是 /dev/st0 喔!

 

范例二:检查磁带机上面有什么档案?

[root@linux ~]# cpio -icdvt < /dev/st0

[root@linux ~]# cpio -icdvt < /dev/st0 > /tmp/content

# 第一个动作当中,会将磁带机内的文件名列出到屏幕上面,而我们可以透过第二个动作,

# 将所有的文件名通通纪录到 /tmp/content 档案去!

 

范例三:将磁带上的数据还原回来~

[root@linux ~]# cpio -icduv < /dev/st0

# 一般来说,使用 SCSI 接口的磁带机,代号是 /dev/st0 喔!

 

范例四:将 /etc 底下的所有『档案』都备份到 /root/etc.cpio 中!

[root@linux ~]# find /etc -type f | cpio -o > /root/etc.cpio

# 这样就能够备份啰~您也可以将数据以 cpio -i < /root/etc.cpio

# 来将资料捉出来!!!!

 

NAME

       cpio - copy files to and from archives

 

SYNOPSIS

       cpio   {-o|--create}   [-0acvABLV]   [-C   bytes]   [-H   format]   [-M  message]  [-O  [[user@]host:]archive]  [-F

       [[user@]host:]archive]  [--file=[[user@]host:]archive]  [--format=format]  [--message=message]  [--null]  [--reset-

       access-time]  [--verbose]  [--dot]  [--append]  [--block-size=blocks]  [--dereference]  [--io-size=bytes] [--quiet]

       [--force-local] [--rsh-command=command] [--help] [--version] < name-list [> archive]

 

       cpio {-i|--extract} [-bcdfmnrtsuvBSV] [-C bytes] [-E file] [-H format]  [-M  message]  [-R  [user][:.][group]]  [-I

       [[user@]host:]archive]  [-F [[user@]host:]archive] [--file=[[user@]host:]archive] [--make-directories] [--nonmatch-

       ing] [--preserve-modification-time] [--numeric-uid-gid]  [--rename]  [-t|--list]  [--swap-bytes]  [--swap]  [--dot]

       [--unconditional]  [--verbose]  [--block-size=blocks]  [--swap-halfwords]  [--io-size=bytes]  [--pattern-file=file]

       [--format=format] [--owner=[user][:.][group]] [--no-preserve-owner] [--message=message] [--force-local] [--no-abso-

       lute-filenames]  [--sparse] [--only-verify-crc] [--quiet] [--rsh-command=command] [--help] [--version] [pattern...]

       [< archive]

 

       cpio {-p|--pass-through} [-0adlmuvLV] [-R [user][:.][group]]  [--null]  [--reset-access-time]  [--make-directories]

       [--link]   [--quiet]   [--preserve-modification-time]   [--unconditional]   [--verbose]   [--dot]   [--dereference]

       [--owner=[user][:.][group]] [--no-preserve-owner] [--sparse] [--help] [--version] destination-directory < name-list

 

DESCRIPTION

       This  manual page documents the GNU version of cpio.  cpio copies files into or out of a cpio or tar archive, which

       is a file that contains other files plus information about them, such as their file name,  owner,  timestamps,  and

       access permissions.  The archive can be another file on the disk, a magnetic tape, or a pipe.  cpio has three oper-

       ating modes.

 

       In copy-out mode, cpio copies files into an archive.  It reads a list of filenames, one per line, on  the  standard

       input,  and  writes  the archive onto the standard output.  A typical way to generate the list of filenames is with

       the find command; you should give find the -depth option to minimize problems with permissions on directories  that

       are unwritable or not searchable.

 

       In  copy-in mode, cpio copies files out of an archive or lists the archive contents.  It reads the archive from the

       standard input.  Any non-option command line arguments are shell globbing patterns; only files in the archive whose

       names  match  one  or more of those patterns are copied from the archive.  Unlike in the shell, an initial ‘.’ in a

       filename does match a wildcard at the start of a pattern, and a ‘/’ in a filename can match wildcards.  If no  pat-

       terns are given, all files are extracted.

 

       In  copy-pass  mode, cpio copies files from one directory tree to another, combining the copy-out and copy-in steps

       without actually using an archive.  It reads the list of files to copy from the standard input; the directory  into

       which it will copy them is given as a non-option argument.

 

       cpio  supports  the  following archive formats: binary, old ASCII, new ASCII, crc, HPUX binary, HPUX old ASCII, old

       tar, and POSIX.1 tar.  The binary format is obsolete because it encodes information about the files in a  way  that

       is  not  portable  between  different  machine  architectures.   The old ASCII format is portable between different

       machine architectures, but should not be used on file systems with more than 65536 i-nodes.  The new  ASCII  format

       is  portable  between different machine architectures and can be used on any size file system, but is not supported

       by all versions of cpio; currently, it is only supported by GNU and Unix System V R4.  The crc format is  like  the

       new  ASCII  format,  but  also contains a checksum for each file which cpio calculates when creating an archive and

       verifies when the file is extracted from the archive.  The HPUX formats are provided for compatibility with  HPUX’s

       cpio which stores device files differently.

 

       The  tar format is provided for compatability with the tar program.  It can not be used to archive files with names

       longer than 100 characters, and can not be used to archive "special"  (block  or  character  devices)  files.   The

       POSIX.1  tar format can not be used to archive files with names longer than 255 characters (less unless they have a

       "/" in just the right place).

 

       By default, cpio creates binary format archives, for compatibility with older cpio programs.  When extracting  from

       archives,  cpio  automatically  recognizes  which  kind  of  archive it is reading and can read archives created on

       machines with a different byte-order.

 

       Some of the options to cpio apply only to certain operating modes; see the SYNOPSIS section for  a  list  of  which

       options are allowed in which modes.

 

   OPTIONS

       -0, --null

              In  copy-out  and copy-pass modes, read a list of filenames terminated by a null character instead of a new-

              line, so that files whose names contain newlines can be archived.  GNU find is one way to produce a list  of

              null-terminated filenames.

 

       -a, --reset-access-time

              Reset  the access times of files after reading them, so that it does not look like they have just been read.

 

       -A, --append

              Append to an existing archive.  Only works in copy-out mode.  The archive must be a disk file specified with

              the -O or -F (--file) option.

 

       -b, --swap

              In  copy-in  mode, swap both halfwords of words and bytes of halfwords in the data.  Equivalent to -sS.  Use

              this option to convert 32-bit integers between big-endian and little-endian machines.

 

       -B     Set the I/O block size to 5120 bytes.  Initially the block size is 512 bytes.

 

       --block-size=BLOCK-SIZE

              Set the I/O block size to BLOCK-SIZE * 512 bytes.

 

       -c     Identical to "-H newc", use the new (SVR4) portable format.  If you wish the old  portable  (ASCII)  archive

              format, use "-H odc" instead.

 

       -C IO-SIZE, --io-size=IO-SIZE

              Set the I/O block size to IO-SIZE bytes.

 

       -d, --make-directories

              Create leading directories where needed.

 

       -E FILE, --pattern-file=FILE

              In  copy-in  mode, read additional patterns specifying filenames to extract or list from FILE.  The lines of

              FILE are treated as if they had been non-option arguments to cpio.

 

       -f, --nonmatching

              Only copy files that do not match any of the given patterns.

 

       -F, --file=archive

              Archive filename to use instead of standard input or output.  To use a tape drive on another machine as  the

              archive, use a filename that starts with ‘HOSTNAME:’.  The hostname can be preceded by a username and an ‘@’

                    to access the remote tape drive as that user, if you have permission to do so (typically an  entry  in  that

              user’s ‘~/.rhosts’ file).

 

       --force-local

              With  -F,  -I, or -O, take the archive file name to be a local file even if it contains a colon, which would

              ordinarily indicate a remote host name.

 

       -H FORMAT, --format=FORMAT

              Use archive format FORMAT.  The valid formats are listed below; the same names are also recognized  in  all-

              caps.   The  default  in copy-in mode is to automatically detect the archive format, and in copy-out mode is

              "bin".

 

              bin    The obsolete binary format.

 

              odc    The old (POSIX.1) portable format.

 

              newc   The new (SVR4) portable format, which supports file systems having more than 65536 i-nodes.

 

              crc    The new (SVR4) portable format with a checksum added.

 

              tar    The old tar format.

 

              ustar  The POSIX.1 tar format.  Also recognizes GNU tar archives, which are similar but not identical.

 

              hpbin  The obsolete binary format used by HPUX’s cpio (which stores device files differently).

 

              hpodc  The portable format used by HPUX’s cpio (which stores device files differently).

 

       -i, --extract

              Run in copy-in mode.

 

       -I archive

              Archive filename to use instead of standard input.  To use a tape drive on another machine as  the  archive,

              use  a  filename  that  starts  with  ‘HOSTNAME:’.  The hostname can be preceded by a username and an ‘@’ to

              access the remote tape drive as that user, if you have permission to do  so  (typically  an  entry  in  that

              user’s ‘~/.rhosts’ file).

 

       -k     Ignored; for compatibility with other versions of cpio.

 

       -l, --link

              Link files instead of copying them, when possible.

 

       -L, --dereference

              Dereference symbolic links (copy the files that they point to instead of copying the links).

 

       -m, --preserve-modification-time

              Retain previous file modification times when creating files.

 

       -M MESSAGE, --message=MESSAGE

              Print  MESSAGE when the end of a volume of the backup media (such as a tape or a floppy disk) is reached, to

              prompt the user to insert a new volume.  If MESSAGE contains the string "%d", it is replaced by the  current

              volume number (starting at 1).

 

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid

              In  the  verbose table of contents listing, show numeric UID and GID instead of translating them into names.

              Also extracts tar archives using the numeric UID and GID instead of the user/group  names.   (cpio  archives

              are always extracted using the numeric UID and GID.)

 

        --no-absolute-filenames

              In copy-in mode, create all files relative to the current directory, even if they have an absolute file name

              in the archive.

 

        --no-preserve-owner

              In copy-in mode and copy-pass mode, do not change the ownership of the files; leave them owned by  the  user

              extracting them.  This is the default for non-root users, so that users on System V don’t inadvertantly give

              away files.

 

       -o, --create

              Run in copy-out mode.

 

       -O archive

              Archive filename to use instead of standard output.  To use a tape drive on another machine as the  archive,

              use  a  filename  that  starts  with  ‘HOSTNAME:’.  The hostname can be preceded by a username and an ‘@’ to

              access the remote tape drive as that user, if you have permission to do  so  (typically  an  entry  in  that

              user’s ‘~/.rhosts’ file).

 

        --only-verify-crc

              When  reading a CRC format archive in copy-in mode, only verify the CRC’s of each file in the archive, don’t

              actually extract the files.

 

       -p, --pass-through

              Run in copy-pass mode.

 

       --quiet

              Do not print the number of blocks copied.

 

       -r, --rename

              Interactively rename files.

 

       -R [user][:.][group], --owner [user][:.][group]

              In copy-out and copy-pass modes, set the ownership of all files created to the specified user and/or  group.

              Either the user or the group, or both, must be present.  If the group is omitted but the ":" or "."  separa-

              tor is given, use the given user’s login group.  Only the super-user can change files’ ownership.

 

       --rsh-command=COMMAND

              Notifies mt that it should use COMMAND to  communicate  with  remote  devices  instead  of  /usr/bin/ssh  or

              /usr/bin/rsh.

 

       --sparse

              In copy-in and copy-pass modes, write files with large blocks of zeros as sparse files.

 

       -s, --swap-bytes

              In copy-in mode, swap the bytes of each halfword (pair of bytes) in the files.

 

       -S, --swap-halfwords

              In copy-in mode, swap the halfwords of each word (4 bytes) in the files.

 

       -t, --list

              Print a table of contents of the input.

 

       -u, --unconditional

              Replace all files, without asking whether to replace existing newer files with older files.

 

       -v, --verbose

              List  the  files processed, or with -t, give an ‘ls -l’ style table of contents listing.  In a verbose table

              of contents of a ustar archive, user and group names in the archive that do not exist on  the  local  system

              are replaced by the names that correspond locally to the numeric UID and GID stored in the archive.

 

       -V --dot

              Print a "." for each file processed.

 

       --version

              Print the cpio program version number and exit.

 

                                                                                                                  CPIO(1L)

(END)

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