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分类: LINUX

2008-05-31 09:56:04

作者: linuxtone  出自: http://www.linuxdiyf.com
作者:NetSeek http://www.linuxtone.org(IT运维|集群架构|性能调优)
欢迎转载,转载时请务必以超链接形式标明文章原始出处和作者信息及本声明.

大纲:
一、系统安装
二、编译安装基本环境
三、配置虚拟主机及基本性能调优
四、基本安全设置
五、附录及相关介绍

一、系统安装
1. 分区
/boot 100M左右
SWAP 物理内存的2倍(如果你的物理内存大于4G以上,分配4G即可)
/usr/local 15G (用于安装软件)
/data 剩余所有空间

2. 系统初始化脚本(根据具体需求关闭不需要的服务)
CODE:
#vi init.sh
-------------------cut begin-------------------------------------------
#welcome
cat << EOF
+--------------------------------------------------------------+
| === Welcome to Centos System init === |
+--------------http://www.linuxtone.org------------------------+
+----------------------Author:NetSeek--------------------------+
EOF

#disable ipv6
cat << EOF
+--------------------------------------------------------------+
| === Welcome to Disable IPV6 === |
+--------------------------------------------------------------+
EOF
echo "alias net-pf-10 off" >> /etc/modprobe.conf
echo "alias ipv6 off" >> /etc/modprobe.conf
/sbin/chkconfig --level 35 ip6tables off
echo "ipv6 is disabled!"

#disable selinux
sed -i '/SELINUX/s/enforcing/disabled/' /etc/selinux/config
echo "selinux is disabled,you must reboot!"

#vim
sed -i "8 s/^/alias vi='vim'/" /root/.bashrc
echo 'syntax on' > /root/.vimrc

#zh_cn
sed -i -e 's/^LANG=.*/LANG="zh_CN.GB18030"/' /etc/sysconfig/i18n

#tunoff services
#--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
cat << EOF
+--------------------------------------------------------------+
| === Welcome to Tunoff services === |
+--------------------------------------------------------------+
EOF
#---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
for i in `ls /etc/rc3.d/S*`
do
CURSRV=`echo $i|cut -c 15-`

echo $CURSRV
case $CURSRV in
crond | irqbalance | microcode_ctl | network | random | sendmail | sshd | syslog | local | mysqld )
echo "Base services, Skip!"
;;
*)
echo "change $CURSRV to off"
chkconfig --level 235 $CURSRV off
service $CURSRV stop
;;
esac
done
-------------------cut end-------------------------------------------
#sh init.sh (执行上面保存的脚本,仍后重启)

二、编译安装基本环境

1. 安装准备
1) 系统约定
软件源代码包存放位置 /usr/local/src
源码包编译安装位置(prefix) /usr/local/software_name
脚本以及维护程序存放位置 /usr/local/sbin
MySQL 数据库位置 /data/mysql/data(可按情况设置)
Apache 网站根目录 /data/www/wwwroot(可按情况设置)
Apache 虚拟主机日志根目录 /data/www/logs(可按情况设置)
Apache 运行账户 www:www

2) 系统环境部署及调整
检查系统是否正常
# tail -n100 /var/log/messages (检查有无系统级错误信息)
# dmesg (检查硬件设备是否有错误信息)
# ifconfig(检查网卡设置是否正确)
# ping www.linuxtone.org (检查网络是否正常)

3) 使用 yum 程序安装所需开发包(以下为标准的 RPM 包名称)
#rpm --import http://mirror.centos.org/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-5
#yum install ntp vim-enhanced gcc gcc-c++ gcc-g77 flex bison autoconf automake bzip2-devel \
ncurses-devel zlib-devel libjpeg-devel libpng-devel libtiff-devel freetype-devel libXpm-devel \
gettext-devel pam-devel kernel



4) 定时校正服务器时钟,定时与中国国家授时中心授时服务器同步
# crontab -e
加入一行:
15 3 * * * /usr/sbin/ntpdate 210.72.145.44 > /dev/null 2>&1

2. 编译安装软件包
源码编译安装所需包(Source)
1) GD2
# cd /usr/local/src
# tar xzvf gd-2.0.35.tar.gz
# cd gd-2.0.35
# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/gd2
# make
# make install

2) LibXML2
# cd /usr/local/src
# tar xjvf libxml2-2.6.29.tar.bz2
# cd libxml2-2.6.29
# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/libxml2
# make
# make install

3) LibMcrypt
# cd /usr/local/src
# tar xjvf libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.bz2
# cd libmcrypt-2.5.8
# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/libmcrypt
# make
# make install

4) Apache日志截断程序
# cd /usr/local/src
# tar xzvf cronolog-1.6.2.tar.gz
# cd cronolog-1.6.2
# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/cronolog
# make
# make install



3. 升级OpenSSL和OpenSSH
# cd /usr/local/src
# tar xzvf openssl-0.9.8g.tar.gz
# cd openssl-0.9.8g
# ./config --prefix=/usr/local/openssl
# make
# make test
# make install
# cd ..
# tar xzvf openssh-5.0p1.tar.gz
# cd openssh-5.0p1
# ./configure \
"--prefix=/usr" \
"--with-pam" \
"--with-zlib" \
"--sysconfdir=/etc/ssh" \
"--with-ssl-dir=/usr/local/openssl" \
"--with-md5-passwords"
# make
# make install

1) 禁用 SSH V1 协议
找到#Protocol 2,1改为:Protocol 2

2) 禁用服务器端GSSAPI
找到以下两行,并将它们注释:
GSSAPIAuthentication yes
GSSAPICleanupCredentials yes

3) 禁用 DNS 名称解析
找到:#UseDNS yeas改为:UseDNS no

4)禁用客户端 GSSAPI
# vi /etc/ssh/ssh_config 找到:GSSAPIAuthentication yes 将这行注释掉。
最后,确认修改正确后重新启动 SSH 服务
# service sshd restart
# ssh -v
确认 OpenSSH 以及 OpenSSL 版本正确。

以上SSH配置可利用以下脚本自动修改:
CODE:
-------------------cut begin-------------------------------------------
#init_ssh
ssh_cf="/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
sed -i -e '74 s/^/#/' -i -e '76 s/^/#/' $ssh_cf
sed -i "s/#UseDNS yes/UseDNS no/" $ssh_cf
#client
sed -i -e '44 s/^/#/' -i -e '48 s/^/#/' $ssh_cf
echo "ssh is init is ok.............."
-------------------cut end---------------------------------------------
三、编译安装A.M.P环境

1.下载软件编译安装
1)下载软件
# cd /usr/local/src
httpd-2.2.8.tar.gz
mysql-5.0.51b.tar.gz
php-5.2.6.tar.bz2
ZendOptimizer-3.3.3-linux-glibc23-i386.tar.gz

2) 安装MySQL
查看分析你的CPU型号:
http://gentoo-wiki.com/Safe_Cflags 查找您的GCC编译参数.
确定系统CPU类型:
# cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep "model name"
执行后会看到系统中CPU的具体型号,记下CPU型号。

# tar zxvf mysql-5.0.51b.tar.gz
# cd mysql-5.0.51b
# vi mysql.sh
CODE:
-------------------cut begin-------------------------------------------
CHOST="i686-pc-linux-gnu"
CFLAGS="-march=prescott -O2 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
CXXFLAGS="${CFLAGS}"
./configure \
"--prefix=/usr/local/mysql" \
"--localstatedir=/data/mysql/data" \
"--with-comment=Source" \
"--with-server-suffix=-LinuxTone" \
"--with-mysqld-user=mysql" \
"--without-debug" \
"--with-big-tables" \
"--with-charset=gbk" \
"--with-collation=gbk_chinese_ci" \
"--with-extra-charsets=all" \
"--with-pthread" \
"--enable-static" \
"--enable-thread-safe-client" \
"--with-client-ldflags=-all-static" \
"--with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static" \
"--enable-assembler" \
"--without-isam" \
"--without-innodb" \
"--without-ndb-debug"
make && make install
mkdir -p /data/mysql/data
useradd mysql -d /data/mysql -s /sbin/nologin
/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
cd /usr/local/mysql
chown -R root:mysql .
chown -R mysql /data/mysql/data
cp share/mysql/my-huge.cnf /etc/my.cnf
cp share/mysql/mysql.server /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld
chmod 755 /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld
chkconfig --add mysqld
/etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld start

cd /usr/local/mysql/bin
for i in *; do ln -s /usr/local/mysql/bin/$i /usr/bin/$i; done

-------------------cut end---------------------------------------------

#sh mysql.sh 即可开始编译.

3) 编译安装Apache
# cd /usr/local/src
# tar zxvf httpd-2.2.8.tar.gz
# cd httpd-2.2.8
CODE:
# ./configure \
"--prefix=/usr/local/apache2" \
"--with-included-apr" \
"--enable-so" \
"--enable-deflate=shared" \
"--enable-expires=shared" \
"--enable-rewrite=shared" \
"--enable-static-support" \
"--disable-userdir"
# make
# make install
# echo '/usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl start ' >> /etc/rc.local

4.)编译安装PHP
# cd /usr/local/src
# tar xjvf php-5.2.6.tar.bz2
# cd php-5.2.6
CODE:
# ./configure \
"--prefix=/usr/local/php" \
"--with-apxs2=/usr/local/apache2/bin/apxs" \
"--with-config-file-path=/usr/local/php/etc" \
"--with-mysql=/usr/local/mysql" \
"--with-libxml-dir=/usr/local/libxml2" \
"--with-gd=/usr/local/gd2" \
"--with-jpeg-dir" \
"--with-png-dir" \
"--with-bz2" \
"--with-freetype-dir" \
"--with-iconv-dir" \
"--with-zlib-dir " \
"--with-openssl=/usr/local/openssl" \
"--with-mcrypt=/usr/local/libmcrypt" \
"--enable-soap" \
"--enable-gd-native-ttf" \
"--enable-memory-limit" \
"--enable-ftp" \
"--enable-mbstring" \
"--enable-exif" \
"--disable-ipv6" \
"--disable-cgi" \
"--disable-cli" #禁掉ipv6,禁掉cli模式,提升速度和安全性.
# make
# make install
# mkdir /usr/local/php/etc
# cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/php/etc/php.ini

5)Xcache的安装.
#tar zxvf xcache-1.2.2.tar.gz
CODE:
#/usr/local/php-fcgi/bin/phpize
./configure --enable-xcache --enable-xcache-coverager --with-php-config=/usr/local/php/bin/php-config \
--enable-inline-optimization --disable-debug

#vi /usr/local/php/etc/php.ini (将以下内容加入php.ini最后面)
CODE:
-------------------cut begin-------------------------------------------
[xcache-common]
zend_extension = /usr/local/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/xcache.so

[xcache.admin]
xcache.admin.user = "admin"
;如何生成md5密码: echo -n "password"| md5sum
xcache.admin.pass = "035d849226a8a10be1a5e0fec1f0f3ce" #密码为52netseek

[xcache]
; Change xcache.size to tune the size of the opcode cache
xcache.size = 24M
xcache.shm_scheme = "mmap"
xcache.count = 4
xcache.slots = 8K
xcache.ttl = 0
xcache.gc_interval = 0

; Change xcache.var_size to adjust the size of variable cache
xcache.var_size = 8M
xcache.var_count = 1
xcache.var_slots = 8K
xcache.var_ttl = 0
xcache.var_maxttl = 0
xcache.var_gc_interval = 300
xcache.test = Off
xcache.readonly_protection = On
xcache.mmap_path = "/tmp/xcache"
xcache.coredump_directory = ""
xcache.cacher = On
xcache.stat = On
xcache.optimizer = Off

[xcache.coverager]
xcache.coverager = On
xcache.coveragedump_directory = ""
-------------------cut end---------------------------------------------

6) 安装Zend Optimizer
# cd /usr/local/src
# tar xzvf ZendOptimizer-3.3.3-linux-glibc23-i386.tar.gz
# ./ZendOptimizer-3.3.3-linux-glibc23-i386/install.sh
安装Zend Optimizer过程的最后不要选择重启Apache。


2. 整合Apache与PHP及系统初化配置.
1)整合Apache与PHP
# vi /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf
找到:
AddType application/x-gzip .gz .tgz
在该行下面添加
AddType application/x-httpd-php .php

找到:

DirectoryIndex index.html

将该行改为

DirectoryIndex index.html index.htm index.php


找到:
#Include conf/extra/httpd-mpm.conf
#Include conf/extra/httpd-info.conf
#Include conf/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf (虚拟主机配置文件存放目录.)
#Include conf/extra/httpd-default.conf
去掉前面的“#”号,取消注释。
注意:以上 4 个扩展配置文件中的设置请按照相关原则进行合理配置!

修改完成后保存退出。
# /usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl restart

2)查看确认L.A.M.P环境信息、提升 PHP 安全性
在网站根目录放置 info.php 脚本,检查phpinfo中的各项信息是否正确。
phpinfo();
?>

确认 PHP 能够正常工作后,在 php.ini 中进行设置提升 PHP 安全性,禁掉危险的函数.
# vi /etc/php.ini找到:disable_functions =设置为:phpinfo,passthru,exec,system,chroot,scandir,chgrp,chown,shell_exec,proc_open,proc_get_status,ini_alter,ini_alter,ini_restore,dl,pfsockopen,openlog,syslog,readlink,symlink,popepassthru,stream_socket_server

3)脚本自动完成初始化配置(以上配置可以用脚本自动化完成)
#cat init_apache_php.sh
CODE:
-------------------cut begin-------------------------------------------
#!/bin/bash
#Written by :NetSeek http://www.linuxtone.org
#init_httpd.conf
http_cf="/usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf"
sed -i -e "s/User daemon/User www/" -i -e "s/Group daemon/Group www/" $http_cf
sed -i -e '121 s/^/#/' -i -e '122 s/^/#/' $http_cf
sed -i 's#DirectoryIndex index.html index.htm# DirectoryIndex index.phpindex.html index.htm#/g' $http_cf
sed -i -e '374 s/^#//g' -i -e '389 s/^#//g' -i -e '392 s/^#//g' -i -e '401 s/^#//g' $http_cf
#init_php(PHP安全设置及隐藏PHP版本)
php_cf="/usr/local/php/etc/php.ini"
sed -i '205 s#;open_basedir =#open_basedir = /data/www/wwwroot:/tmp#g' $php_cf
sed -i '210 s#disable_functions =#disable_functions = phpinfo,passthru,exec,system,chroot,scandir,chgrp,chown,shell_exec,proc_open,proc_get_status,ini_alter,ini_alter,ini_restore,dl,pfsockopen,openlog,syslog,readlink,symlink,popepassthru,stream_socket_server#g' $php_cf
sed -i '/expose_php/s/On/Off/' $php_cf
sed -i '/display_errors/s/On/Off/' $php_cf
-------------------cut end-------------------------------------------

三、配置虚拟主机及基本性能调优
1) 配置虚拟主机:
#vi /usr/local/apache2/conf/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf
CODE:
NameVirtualHost *:80


ServerAdmin cnseek@gmail.com
DocumentRoot "/data/www/wwwroot/linuxtone.org"
ServerName www.linuxtone.org
ServerAlias bbs.linxutone.org
ErrorLog "logs/dummy-host.example.com-error_log"
CustomLog "|/usr/sbin/cronolog /data/logs/access_www.linuxtone.org.%Y%m%d" combined

2).基本性能调优参考:(更多的调优相关文章请关注:http://bbs.linuxtone.org/index.html性能调优相关的贴子)
#vi /usr/local/apache2/conf/extra/httpd-default.conf
CODE:
Timeout 15
KeepAlive Off
MaxKeepAliveRequests 50
KeepAliveTimeout 5
UseCanonicalName Off
AccessFileName .htaccess
ServerTokens Prod
ServerSignature Off
HostnameLookups Off

#vi /usr/local/apache2/conf/extra/httpd-mpm.conf
CODE:

ServerLimit 2000
StartServers 10
MinSpareServers 10
MaxSpareServers 15
MaxClients 2000
MaxRequestsPerChild 10000

3).Apache日志处理相关问题汇总贴(http://bbs.linuxtone.org/thread-102-1-1.html)
利用awstats分析网站日志:http://bbs.linuxtone.org/thread-56-1-1.html

忽略不需要的日志配置参考具体请据据具体问题分析:
LogFormat "%{X-Forwarded-For}i %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\"" combined
#下面加入如下内容:
CODE:
# filter the localhost visit
SetEnvIf Remote_Addr "127\.0\.0\.1" dontlog
# filter some special directories
SetEnvIf Request_URI "^ZendPlatform.*$" dontlog
SetEnvIf Request_URI \.healthcheck\.html$ dontlog
SetEnvIf Remote_Addr "::1" dontlog
SetEnvIf Request_URI "\.getPing.php$" dontlog
SetEnvIf Request_URI "^/error\.html$" dontlog
SetEnvIf Request_URI "\.gif$" dontlog
SetEnvIf Request_URI "\.jpg$" dontlog
SetEnvIf Request_URI "\.css$" dontlog

4). Apache防盗链(Apache防盗链相关问题汇总:http://bbs.linuxtone.org/thread-101-1-1.html)
CODE:
RewriteEngine on
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^$
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^http://(www\.)?mydomain.com/.*$ [NC]
RewriteRule \.(gif|jpg)$ http://网站域名/nolink.png [R,L]

四、基本安全设置
1)iptables 封锁相关端口(推荐读CU白金大哥的两小时玩转iptables)
2)SSH全安(修改SSH端口限制来源IP登陆,或者参考http://bbs.linuxtone.org/thread-106-1-1.html)
3)Linux防Arp攻击策略(http://bbs.linuxtone.org/thread-41-1-1.html)
4)注意(还是那句老话:安全工作从细节做起!)

五、附录及相关介绍
1)参考文档(感谢):
Discuz!公司Nanu先生文章的相关链接:
http://bbs.linuxpk.com/thread-13325-1-2.html
http://www.discuz.net/thread-722804-1-1.html
配置全能WEB(05年文章参考):http://bbs.linuxpk.com/thread-437-1-2.html
LinuxTone.Org(Apache相关问题专题贴):http://bbs.linuxtone.org/thread-88-1-1.html

1)利用Nginx替代apache实现高性能的Web环境(第一版): http://bbs.linuxtone.org/thread-7-1-1.html
第二版详细安全配置近期更新,请实时关注:http://bbs.linuxtone.org/(网站服务器版)

2)关于LinuxTone.Org(IT运维专家论坛):
目标:期望和大家一起努力打造一个专注IT运维,Linux集群架构的开放互动讨论平台!期待您的加入!

我们很乐意把平时工作中遇到的问题和得到的经验与大家共同分享相互学习!
如果你是Linux爱好者?
如果你目前在网站服务器方面遇到很多头痛的问题?
如果你目前的站就使用了Linux?或者你想将你的Linux的apache迁于至高性能的Nginx?
如果您使用的是WAMP(即Windows平台的AMP)平台想选移LAMP?
如果你目前的网站需要优化进一步提升硬件性能?
如果你目前的网站需要负载均衡集群架构方案? 请联系我们!
我们愿意抽出空余时间免费热心为你解答相关问题,协助你完成所有相关工作!共同分享!共同进步!
同时也热情期待你能加入http://www.linuxtone.org 帮我一起完善论坛建设工作,完成每版置顶的手册形成可操作性
强的文档及方案,方便大家一起学习进步!联系方式:QQ:67888954 MSN:cnseek@msn.com Gtalk:cnseek@gmail.com

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