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分类: LINUX

2008-09-24 09:40:19

CentOS应该是做为服务器的linux的佼佼者。CentOS采用的二进制包是rpm,不过包的依赖性解决有时候却是个问题。我比较喜欢debian的apt,非常方便。以前以为RedHat linux没这么方便,后来发现yum是个不错的东西。yum的使用和apt有几分相似,这样一来对于许多包的安装就方便多了。
    这篇文章主要讲两点内容,一是yum使用方法的整理;二是找一个比较快的国内的源,这样一来,yum的大体使用过程就解决了。
    1.yum的使用:
    1)包的更新
    1.1)检查可更新包: yum check-update
    1.2)更新所有包: yum update
    1.3)更新指定包: yum update package_name
    1.4)版本升级: yum upgrade
    2)包安装与删除
    2.1)yum install package_name
    2.2)yum remove package_name
    3)包搜索
    3.1)搜索特定包: yum search package_name
    3.2)搜索包含特定文件名的包:yum provides name
    4)包列表
    4.1)列出所有安装或更新的包: yum list
    4.2)列出指定包:yum list name
    4.3)列出可更新包:yum list updates
    4.4)列出已安装包:yum list installed
    4.5)列出已安装但不包含在资源库中的包:yum list extras
    2.yum源设定
    2.1)加快yum下载速度: yum -y install yum-fastestmirror,在CentOs 4上名字叫做yum-plugin-fastestmirror
    2.2)yum源文件:/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo
    2.3)CentOS 5的yum源设为上海交通大学网站
CentOS-Base.repo
[base]
name=CentOS-5 - Base
#mirrorlist=
repo=os
#baseurl=
baseurl=
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=

#released updates
[update]
name=CentOS-5 - Updates
#mirrorlist=
baseurl=
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=

#packages used/produced in the build but not released
[addons]
name=CentOS-5 - Addons
#mirrorlist=

baseurl=
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=

#additional packages that may be useful
[extras]
name=CentOS-5 - Extras
#mirrorlist=

baseurl=
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=

#additional packages that extend functionality of existing packages
[centosplus]
name=CentOS-5 - Plus
#mirrorlist=
baseurl=
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
gpgkey=

#contrib - packages by Centos Users
[contrib]
name=CentOS-5 - Contrib
#mirrorlist=
baseurl=
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
gpgkey=

a.执行
64位:
rpm --import

32位:
rpm --import
b.执行 yum update.
             2.4)设置yum源为国内服务器
# CentOS-Base.repo
#
# This file uses a new mirrorlist system developed by Lance Davis for CentOS.
# The mirror system uses the connecting IP address of the client and the
# update status of each mirror to pick mirrors that are updated to and
# geographically close to the client. You should use this for CentOS updates
# unless you are manually picking other mirrors.
#
# If the mirrorlist= does not work for you, as a fall back you can try the
# remarked out baseurl= line instead.
#
[base]
name=CentOS-5 - Base
baseurl=
gpgcheck=1
#released updates
[update]
name=CentOS-5 - Updates
baseurl=
gpgcheck=1
#packages used/produced in the build but not released
[addons]
name=CentOS-5 - Addons
baseurl=
gpgcheck=1
#additional packages that may be useful
[extras]
name=CentOS-5 - Extras
baseurl=
gpgcheck=1
#additional packages that extend functionality of existing packages
[centosplus]
name=CentOS-5 - Plus
baseurl=
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
#contrib - packages by Centos Users
[contrib]
name=CentOS-5 - Contrib
baseurl=
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
#packages in testing
[testing]
name=CentOS-5 - Testing
baseurl=
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0

a.执行:rpm --import
       3.这一篇文章只是就yum的基本使用进行整理,尚有许多未涉及到的地方。不过基本的使用已经足够。
--完--
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