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分类: 嵌入式

2015-03-14 15:55:27

原文地址:Linux SPI框架(中) 作者:enzo26

水平有限,描述不当之处还请指出,转载请注明出处http://blog.csdn.net/vanbreaker/article/details/7734150      

     上节介绍了SPI子系统中的一些重要数据结构和SPI子系统初始化的第一步,也就是注册SPI总线。这节介绍针对于s3c24xx平台的SPI子系统初始化,在看具体的代码之前,先上一张自己画的图,帮助理清初始化的主要步骤

 

显然,SPI是一种平台特定的资源,所以它是以platform平台设备的方式注册进 内核的,因此它的struct platform_device结构是已经静态定义好了的,现在只待它的struct platform_driver注册,然后和platform_device匹配。

 

初始化的入口:

static int __init s3c24xx_spi_init(void)
{
        return platform_driver_probe(&s3c24xx_spi_driver, s3c24xx_spi_probe);
}


platform_driver_probe()会调用 platform_driver_register()来注册驱动,然后在注册的过程中寻求匹配的platform_device,一旦匹配成功,便会调 用probe函数,也就是s3c24xx_spi_probe(),在看这个函数之前,还得介绍几个相关的数据结构。

struct s3c2410_spi_info是一个板级结构,也是在移植时就定义好的,在初始化spi_master时用到,platform_device-->dev-->platform_data会指向这个结构。

struct s3c2410_spi_info {
	int			 pin_cs;	/* simple gpio cs */
	unsigned int		 num_cs;	/* total chipselects */
	int			 bus_num;/* bus number to use. */

	void (*gpio_setup)(struct s3c2410_spi_info *spi, int enable);
	void (*set_cs)(struct s3c2410_spi_info *spi, int cs, int pol);
};

 

struct s3c24xx_spi用来具体描述s3c24xx平台上一个SPI控制器

struct s3c24xx_spi {
	/* bitbang has to be first */
	struct spi_bitbang	 bitbang;
	struct completion	 done;

	void __iomem		*regs;
	int			 irq;
	int			 len;
	int			 count;

	void			(*set_cs)(struct s3c2410_spi_info *spi,
					  int cs, int pol);

	/* data buffers */
	const unsigned char	*tx;
	unsigned char		*rx;

	struct clk		*clk;
	struct resource		*ioarea;
	struct spi_master	*master;
	struct spi_device	*curdev;
	struct device		*dev;
	struct s3c2410_spi_info *pdata;
};


struct spi_bitbang用于控制实际的数据传输

struct spi_bitbang {
	struct workqueue_struct	*workqueue;  /*工作队列*/
	struct work_struct	work;

	spinlock_t		lock;
	struct list_head	queue;
	u8			busy;
	u8			use_dma;
	u8			flags;		/* extra spi->mode support */

	struct spi_master	*master;         /*bitbang所属的master*/

	 /*用于设置设备传输时的时钟,字长等*/
	int	(*setup_transfer)(struct spi_device *spi,
			struct spi_transfer *t);

	void	(*chipselect)(struct spi_device *spi, int is_on);
#define	BITBANG_CS_ACTIVE	1	/* normally nCS, active low */
#define	BITBANG_CS_INACTIVE	0

	/*针对于平台的传输控制函数*/
	int	(*txrx_bufs)(struct spi_device *spi, struct spi_transfer *t);

	/* txrx_word[SPI_MODE_*]() just looks like a shift register */
	u32	(*txrx_word[4])(struct spi_device *spi,
			unsigned nsecs,
			u32 word, u8 bits);
};

 

下面来看s3c24xx_spi_probe()函数的实现

static int __init s3c24xx_spi_probe(struct platform_device *pdev)
{
	struct s3c2410_spi_info *pdata;
	struct s3c24xx_spi *hw;
	struct spi_master *master;
	struct resource *res;
	int err = 0;

	/*创建spi_master,并将spi_master->private_data指向s3c24xx_spi*/
	master = spi_alloc_master(&pdev->dev, sizeof(struct s3c24xx_spi));
	if (master == NULL) {
		dev_err(&pdev->dev, "No memory for spi_master\n");
		err = -ENOMEM;
		goto err_nomem;
	}

	hw = spi_master_get_devdata(master);//获取s3c24xx_spi
	memset(hw, 0, sizeof(struct s3c24xx_spi));

	hw->master = spi_master_get(master);
	hw->pdata = pdata = pdev->dev.platform_data;
	hw->dev = &pdev->dev;

	if (pdata == NULL) {
		dev_err(&pdev->dev, "No platform data supplied\n");
		err = -ENOENT;
		goto err_no_pdata;
	}

	platform_set_drvdata(pdev, hw);
	init_completion(&hw->done);

	/* setup the master state. */
         /*片选数和SPI主控制器编号是在platform_data中已经定义好了的*/
	master->num_chipselect = hw->pdata->num_cs;
	master->bus_num = pdata->bus_num;

	/* setup the state for the bitbang driver */

	/*设置bitbang的所属master和控制传输的相关函数*/
	hw->bitbang.master         = hw->master;
	hw->bitbang.setup_transfer = s3c24xx_spi_setupxfer;
	hw->bitbang.chipselect     = s3c24xx_spi_chipsel;
	hw->bitbang.txrx_bufs      = s3c24xx_spi_txrx;
	hw->bitbang.master->setup  = s3c24xx_spi_setup;

	dev_dbg(hw->dev, "bitbang at %p\n", &hw->bitbang);

	/* find and map our resources */

	res = platform_get_resource(pdev, IORESOURCE_MEM, 0);
	if (res == NULL) {
		dev_err(&pdev->dev, "Cannot get IORESOURCE_MEM\n");
		err = -ENOENT;
		goto err_no_iores;
	}

	hw->ioarea = request_mem_region(res->start, (res->end - res->start)+1,
					pdev->name);

	if (hw->ioarea == NULL) {
		dev_err(&pdev->dev, "Cannot reserve region\n");
		err = -ENXIO;
		goto err_no_iores;
	}

	/*映射SPI控制寄存器*/
	hw->regs = ioremap(res->start, (res->end - res->start)+1);
	if (hw->regs == NULL) {
		dev_err(&pdev->dev, "Cannot map IO\n");
		err = -ENXIO;
		goto err_no_iomap;
	}

	/*获取中断号*/
	hw->irq = platform_get_irq(pdev, 0);
	if (hw->irq < 0) {
		dev_err(&pdev->dev, "No IRQ specified\n");
		err = -ENOENT;
		goto err_no_irq;
	}

	/*注册中断*/
	err = request_irq(hw->irq, s3c24xx_spi_irq, 0, pdev->name, hw);
	if (err) {
		dev_err(&pdev->dev, "Cannot claim IRQ\n");
		goto err_no_irq;
	}

	hw->clk = clk_get(&pdev->dev, "spi");
	if (IS_ERR(hw->clk)) {
		dev_err(&pdev->dev, "No clock for device\n");
		err = PTR_ERR(hw->clk);
		goto err_no_clk;
	}

	/* setup any gpio we can */

	if (!pdata->set_cs) {
		if (pdata->pin_cs < 0) {
			dev_err(&pdev->dev, "No chipselect pin\n");
			goto err_register;
		}

		err = gpio_request(pdata->pin_cs, dev_name(&pdev->dev));
		if (err) {
			dev_err(&pdev->dev, "Failed to get gpio for cs\n");
			goto err_register;
		}
		
		hw->set_cs = s3c24xx_spi_gpiocs;//设定片选函数
		gpio_direction_output(pdata->pin_cs, 1);
	} else
		hw->set_cs = pdata->set_cs;

	s3c24xx_spi_initialsetup(hw);

	/* register our spi controller */
         /* 注册主机SPI控制器 */
	err = spi_bitbang_start(&hw->bitbang);
	if (err) {
		dev_err(&pdev->dev, "Failed to register SPI master\n");
		goto err_register;
	}

	return 0;

 err_register:
	if (hw->set_cs == s3c24xx_spi_gpiocs)
		gpio_free(pdata->pin_cs);

	clk_disable(hw->clk);
	clk_put(hw->clk);

 err_no_clk:
	free_irq(hw->irq, hw);

 err_no_irq:
	iounmap(hw->regs);
int spi_bitbang_start(struct spi_bitbang *bitbang)
{
	int	status;

	if (!bitbang->master || !bitbang->chipselect)
		return -EINVAL;

	/*初始化一个struct work,处理函数为bitbang_work*/
	INIT_WORK(&bitbang->work, bitbang_work);
	spin_lock_init(&bitbang->lock);
	INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bitbang->queue);

	/*检测bitbang中的函数是否都定义了,如果没定义,则默认使用spi_bitbang_xxx*/
	if (!bitbang->master->transfer)
		bitbang->master->transfer = spi_bitbang_transfer;
	if (!bitbang->txrx_bufs) {
		bitbang->use_dma = 0;
		bitbang->txrx_bufs = spi_bitbang_bufs;
		if (!bitbang->master->setup) {
			if (!bitbang->setup_transfer)
				bitbang->setup_transfer =
					 spi_bitbang_setup_transfer;
			bitbang->master->setup = spi_bitbang_setup;
			bitbang->master->cleanup = spi_bitbang_cleanup;
		}
	} else if (!bitbang->master->setup)
		return -EINVAL;

	/* this task is the only thing to touch the SPI bits */
	bitbang->busy = 0;
	/*创建bitbang的工作队列*/
	bitbang->workqueue = create_singlethread_workqueue(
			dev_name(bitbang->master->dev.parent));
	if (bitbang->workqueue == NULL) {
		status = -EBUSY;
		goto err1;
	}

	/* driver may get busy before register() returns, especially
	 * if someone registered boardinfo for devices
	 */
	 /*注册spi_master*/
	status = spi_register_master(bitbang->master);
	if (status < 0)
		goto err2;

	return status;

err2:
	destroy_workqueue(bitbang->workqueue);
err1:
	return status;
}

 

下一个关键函数就是spi_register_master(),用于注册spi_master

int spi_register_master(struct spi_master *master)
{
	static atomic_t		dyn_bus_id = ATOMIC_INIT((1<<15) - 1);
	struct device		*dev = master->dev.parent;
	int			status = -ENODEV;
	int			dynamic = 0;

	if (!dev)
		return -ENODEV;

	/* even if it's just one always-selected device, there must
	 * be at least one chipselect
	 */
	if (master->num_chipselect == 0)//片选数不能为0
		return -EINVAL;

	/* convention:  dynamically assigned bus IDs count down from the max */
	if (master->bus_num < 0) {
		/* FIXME switch to an IDR based scheme, something like
		 * I2C now uses, so we can't run out of "dynamic" IDs
		 */
		master->bus_num = atomic_dec_return(&dyn_bus_id);
		dynamic = 1;
	}

	/* register the device, then userspace will see it.
	 * registration fails if the bus ID is in use.
	 */
	dev_set_name(&master->dev, "spi%u", master->bus_num);
	status = device_add(&master->dev);//添加spi_master设备
	if (status < 0)
		goto done;
	dev_dbg(dev, "registered master %s%s\n", dev_name(&master->dev),
			dynamic ? " (dynamic)" : "");

	/* populate children from any spi device tables */
	scan_boardinfo(master);//遍历板级信息,寻找可以挂接在该spi_master下的从设备
	status = 0;
done:
	return status;
}


 

static void scan_boardinfo(struct spi_master *master)
{
	struct boardinfo	*bi;

	mutex_lock(&board_lock);
	list_for_each_entry(bi, &board_list, list) {
		struct spi_board_info	*chip = bi->board_info;
		unsigned		n;

		for (n = bi->n_board_info; n > 0; n--, chip++) {
			if (chip->bus_num != master->bus_num)
				continue;
			/* NOTE: this relies on spi_new_device to
			 * issue diagnostics when given bogus inputs
			 */
			 /*bus_num相等则创建新设备*/
			(void) spi_new_device(master, chip);
		}
	}
	mutex_unlock(&board_lock);
}


spi_board_info是板级信息,是在移植时就写好的,并且要将其注册

struct spi_board_info {
	char		modalias[32];  /*名字*/
	const void	*platform_data;
	void		*controller_data;
	int		irq;          /*中断号*/
	u32		max_speed_hz; /*最高传输速率*/
	u16		bus_num;      /*所属的spi_master编号*/
	u16		chip_select;  /*片选号*/

 	u8		mode;         /*传输模式*/

};

 

最后一步就是将相应的从设备注册进内核

struct spi_device *spi_new_device(struct spi_master *master,
				  struct spi_board_info *chip)
{
	struct spi_device	*proxy;
	int			status;

	/* NOTE:  caller did any chip->bus_num checks necessary.
	 *
	 * Also, unless we change the return value convention to use
	 * error-or-pointer (not NULL-or-pointer), troubleshootability
	 * suggests syslogged diagnostics are best here (ugh).
	 */

	/*创建SPI_device*/
	proxy = spi_alloc_device(master);
	if (!proxy)
		return NULL;

	WARN_ON(strlen(chip->modalias) >= sizeof(proxy->modalias));

	/*初始化*/
	proxy->chip_select = chip->chip_select;
	proxy->max_speed_hz = chip->max_speed_hz;
	proxy->mode = chip->mode;
	proxy->irq = chip->irq;
	strlcpy(proxy->modalias, chip->modalias, sizeof(proxy->modalias));
	proxy->dev.platform_data = (void *) chip->platform_data;
	proxy->controller_data = chip->controller_data;
	proxy->controller_state = NULL;

	/*将新设备添加进内核*/
	status = spi_add_device(proxy);
	if (status < 0) {
		spi_dev_put(proxy);
		return NULL;
	}

	return proxy;
}

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