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分类: Oracle

2019-02-10 15:04:24

【BBED】bbed常用命令 【BBED】bbed常用命令
 
 
 
 
一.1  相关知识点扫盲
BBED(Oracle Block Browerand EDitor Tool),用来直接查看和修改数据文件数据的一个工具,是Oracle一款内部工具,可以直接修改Oracle数据文件块的内容,在一些极端恢复场景下比较有用。该工具不受Oracle支持,所以默认是没有生成可执行文件的,在使用前需要重新连接。
 
一.1.1  我的编译代码
ls -l  $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib/*sbbd*
ls -l  $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/mesg/bbed*
chown oracle:dba /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/rdbms/lib/*sbbd*
chown oracle:dba /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/rdbms/mesg/bbed*
 
--cd $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib
--make -f ins_rdbms.mk $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib/bbed
 
--make -f $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib/ins_rdbms.mk $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib/bbed
make -f $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib/ins_rdbms.mk BBED=$ORACLE_HOME/bin/bbed $ORACLE_HOME/bin/bbed
 
一.1.2  我的使用代码
vi /home/oracle/file.txt
set line 9999 pagesize 9999
col name format a80
select file#||' '||name||' '||bytes name from v$datafile;
 
vi /home/oracle/bbed.par
blocksize=8192
listfile=/home/oracle/file.txt
mode=edit
 
bbed parfile=/home/oracle/bbed.par
bbed PASSWORD=blockedit  mode=edit blocksize=8192 listfile=/home/oracle/file.txt
 
一.1.3  注意事项
① 若使用bbed的过程中,数据库有重启的过程,最好是退出BBED重新进入bbed的环境
② windows下BBED软件和其他系统下BBED不太一样,操作的时候块号比其他系统下多一个
 
一.2  bbed日志记录 log.bbd
bbed启动和运行的过程会将运行过的所有命令记录到当前的目录下log.bbd文件中,所以bbed要求oracle用户在当前目录具有创建文件的权限。
一.3  报错 一.3.1  BBED-00303: unable to open file 'log.bbd'
oracle用户需要对当前操作目录有权限,否则报错:
[ZFZHLHRDB2:oracle]:/oracle>bbed
BBED-00303: unable to open file 'log.bbd'
[ZFZHLHRDB2:oracle]:/oracle>touch log.bbd
touch: 0652-046 Cannot create log.bbd.
[ZFZHLHRDB2:oracle]:/oracle>ls -ld
drwxr-xr-x    5 root     dba             256 Mar 14 15:41 .
[ZFZHLHRDB2:oracle]:/oracle>cd /home/oracle
[ZFZHLHRDB2:oracle]:/home/oracle>ls -ld
drwxr-xr-x    3 oracle   dba             256 Apr 05 17:01 .
[ZFZHLHRDB2:oracle]:/home/oracle>bbed
Password:
BBED-00113: Invalid password. Please rerun utility with the correct password.
 
[ZFZHLHRDB2:oracle]:/home/oracle>bbed parfile=/home/oracle/bbed.par
Password:
 
BBED: Release 2.0.0.0.0 - Limited Production on Tue Apr 5 17:28:35 2016
 
Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.
 
************* !!! For Oracle Internal Use only !!! ***************
 
BBED> info
File#  Name                                                        Size(blks)
-----  ----                                                        ----------
     1  /oracle/app/oracle/oralhr/system01.dbf                           96000
     2  /oracle/app/oracle/oralhr/sysaux01.dbf                           62720
     3  /oracle/app/oracle/oralhr/undotbs01.dbf                          11520
     4  /oracle/app/oracle/oralhr/users01.dbf                              640
     5  /oracle/app/oracle/oralhr/example01.dbf                          40080
 
 
 
第二章 BBED基本命令
先看帮助的说明:
BBED> help all
SET DBA [ dba | file#, block# ]
SET FILENAME 'filename'
SET FILE file#
SET BLOCK [+/-]block#
SET OFFSET [ [+/-]byte offset | symbol |*symbol ]
SET BLOCKSIZE bytes
SET LIST[FILE] 'filename'
SET WIDTH character_count
SET COUNT bytes_to_display
SET IBASE [ HEX | OCT | DEC ]
SET OBASE [ HEX | OCT | DEC ]
SET MODE [ BROWSE | EDIT ]
SET SPOOL [ Y | N ]
SHOW [ | ALL ]
INFO
MAP[/v] [ DBA | FILENAME | FILE | BLOCK ]
DUMP[/v] [ DBA | FILENAME | FILE | BLOCK |OFFSET | COUNT ]
PRINT[/x|d|u|o|c] [ DBA | FILE | FILENAME |BLOCK | OFFSET | symbol | *symbol ]
EXAMINE[/Nuf] [ DBA | FILE | FILENAME |BLOCK | OFFSET | symbol | *symbol ]
< /Nuf>:
N - a number which specifies a repeatcount.
u - a letter which specifies a unit size:
  b -b1, ub1 (byte)
  h -b2, ub2 (half-word)
  w -b4, ub4(word)
  r -Oracle table/index row
f - a letter which specifies a displayformat:
  x -hexadecimal
  d -decimal
  u -unsigned decimal
  o -octal
  c -character (native)
  n -Oracle number
  t -Oracle date
  i -Oracle rowid
FIND[/x|d|u|o|c] numeric/character string [TOP | CURR ]
COPY [ DBA | FILE | FILENAME | BLOCK ] TO [DBA | FILE | FILENAME | BLOCK ]
MODIFY[/x|d|u|o|c] numeric/character string
     [ DBA | FILE | FILENAME | BLOCK | OFFSET | symbol | *symbol ]
ASSIGN[/x|d|u|o] =
< target spec> : [ DBA | FILE |FILENAME | BLOCK | OFFSET | symbol | *symbol ]
< source spec> : [ value | ]
SUM [ DBA | FILE | FILENAME | BLOCK ] [APPLY ]
PUSH [ DBA | FILE | FILENAME | BLOCK |OFFSET ]
POP [ALL]
REVERT [ DBA | FILE | FILENAME | BLOCK ]
UNDO
HELP [ | ALL ]
VERIFY [ DBA | FILE | FILENAME | BLOCK ]
CORRUPT [ DBA | FILE | FILENAME | BLOCK ]
 
下面是几个常用的:
set 设定当前的环境
show 查看当前的环境参数,跟sqlplus的同名命令类似。
dump 列出指定block的内容
find 在指定的block中查找指定的字符串,结果是显示出字符串,及其偏移量--offset,偏移量就是在block中的字节数
modify 修改指定block的指定偏移量的值,可以在线修改。
copy 把一个block的内容copy到另一个block中
verify 检查当前环境是否有坏块
sum 计算block的checksum,modify之后block就被标识为坏块,current checksum与reqired checksum不一致,sum命令可以计算出新的checksum并应用到当前块。
undo 回滚当前的修改操作,如果手误做错了,undo一下就ok了,回到原来的状态。
revert 回滚所有之前的修改操作,意思就是 undo all
 
 
二.1  SET 命令 二.1.1  set dba
Set the current data block using the standard Oracle DBA (Data Block Address)format. This is entered as file_id, block.
       关于DBA 说明,参考:Oracle rdba和 dba 说明 http://blog.csdn.net/tianlesoftware/article/details/6529346
select rowid,
dbms_rowid.rowid_relative_fno(rowid)rel_fno,
dbms_rowid.rowid_block_number(rowid)blockno,
dbms_rowid.rowid_row_number(rowid) rowno
from scott.emp;
 
set dba 4,145
 
 如果设置成功,会返回该block的RDBA (Relative Data Block Address),rdba就是rowid中的rfile#+block#。括号里面的是DBA值和block 和 file id。 我们验证一下:
sqlplus执行:
variable dba varchar2(30);
exec :dba :=dbms_utility.make_data_block_address(4,145);
print dba
 
 
二.1.2  set filename
Sets the current file to the one specified. It must be a valid Oracle data file andit must be enclosed in single quotes. If the file is not in the current path itmust also be fully qualified. If successful, bbed will respond showing the filenow being accessed.
 
BBED> set filename '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/dave2/users01.dbf'
       FILENAME       /u01/app/oracle/oradata/dave2/users01.dbf
--必须是一个有效的datafile,并且用单引号括起来
 
二.1.3  set file
Sets the current file to the number specified. The number specified must be one ofthe file ids supplied in the filelist referenced at startup. If successful,bbed will respond showing the file id now being accessed.
BBED> set file 4
       FILE#           4
--注意这里的number,是我们之前配置的filelist里的number。它可以和我们db 里的file id 不一样。 不过最好是配置一样的。
 
二.1.4  set block
Sets the current block. The block is relative to the filename or file already set.The absolute block can be specified, or an offset to the current block can bespecified using the plus (+) or (-) symbols. If successful, bbed will respondshowing the current block.
--注意这里的block 是一个相对的位置,我们需要先指定一个file,然后在指定block。 即对应file里的block。可以对当前block的位置进行+和-操作。
 
BBED> set file 4
       FILE#           4
BBED> set block 60882
BBED-00309: out of range block number(60882)
BBED> set file 1
       FILE#           1
BBED> set block 60882
       BLOCK#          60882
BBED> set bock +10
BBED-00202: invalid parameter (bock)
BBED> set block +10
       BLOCK#          60892
BBED> set block -10
       BLOCK#          60882
 
BBED> set file 4 block 520
        FILE#           4
        BLOCK#          520
 
BBED> set dba 4,520
        DBA             0x01000208 (16777736 4,520)
 
 
二.1.5  set offset
Sets the current offset. The offset is relative to the block already set. Theabsolute offset can be specified, or an offset to the current offset can bespecified using the plus (+) or minus (-) symbols. If successful, bbed willrespond showing the current offset.
      --偏移量是相对某个block里的偏移量,可以用+和-进行操作
BBED> set offset 20
       OFFSET          20
BBED> set offset +2
       OFFSET          22
BBED> set offset -2
       OFFSET          20
 
二.1.6  set blocksize
 Sets the blocksize of the current file. The blocksize must match the file selectedor an error will be reported. If successful, bbed will respond showing thecurrent blocksize.
       设置当前datafile 的blocksize 大小,该大小必须和datafile 的实际block 匹配,否则会报错。
BBED> set blocksize 8192
       BLOCKSIZE       8192
 
二.1.7  set listfile
Sets the listfile to the specified file. This option can be used if the listfile wasnot specified on the command line. The listfile must be enclosed in singlequotes. If successful, bbed will respond showing the current listfile.
--在前面讲过,可以通过parameter file 来指定bbed的属性,当然也可以通过set 来指定这些信息。对于listfile的文件,必须用单引号括起来。
 
BBED> set listfile '/u01/filelist.txt'
       LISTFILE        /u01/filelist.txt
 
二.1.8  set width
 Sets the current screen width. If not specified bbed will assume an 80-characterdisplay.
       设定当前屏幕的宽度,默认是80.
BBED> set width 200
       WIDTH           200
 
二.1.9  set count
 Sets the number of bytes of the data block to display from the dump command. Thedefault is 512.
Tosee an entire 8Kb block therefore you would need to dump the block eight timesat offsets 0, 512, 1024, 1536, 2048, 2560, 3092 and 3604.
By setting the count higher bbed will dump more of the block each time. Byreducing it a smaller dump can be achieved.
       设置dump 命令显示bytes的数量。默认是512 bytes。
 
BBED> set count 512
       COUNT           512
 
二.1.10  set ibase
 Sets the internal number base. The default is decimal. However it can also be set tohexadecimal or octal. This allows the set file, set block and set offsetcommands to use an alternate base to decimal. If successful, bbed will respondshowing the current base:
--设置内部的数字格式,默认是十进制。 也可以设置为十六进制或者八进制。设置完数字格式之后,可是使用该格式来设置blcok,offset等。
BBED> set ibase hex
       IBASE           Hex
BBED> set block +D
       BLOCK#          14
BBED> set ibase decimal
       IBASE           Dec
 
二.1.11  set mode
 Sets the bbed mode. The options are browse or edit. In browse mode no changes can bemade. This is the suggested mode for first-time users, or if you are intendingto use the tool only to inspect data blocks.
--设置bbed 的模式,该默认有2种:browse 和 edit。 browse 模式不允许进行修改。 如果要修改,就选择edit模式。 这个在我们的之前的配置文件里,我们选择了edit。
BBED> set mode browse
       MODE            Browse
BBED> set mode edit
       MODE            Edit
 
二.2  show 命令
   显示当前的配置选项。
show
 
BBED> show
       FILE#           1
       BLOCK#          14
       OFFSET          0
       DBA             0x0040000e(4194318 1,14)
       --注意这里的block 变成了14. 是我们刚才设置的。
       FILENAME       /u01/app/oracle/oradata/dave2/system01.dbf
       BIFILE          bifile.bbd
       LISTFILE        /u01/filelist.txt
       BLOCKSIZE       8192
       MODE            Edit
       EDIT            Unrecoverable
       IBASE           Dec
       OBASE           Dec
       WIDTH           200
       COUNT           512
       LOGFILE         log.bbd
       SPOOL           No
 
二.3  info
显示当前可以进行browse 或者edit 的file。即我们filelist 里指定的datafile信息。
Info
 
 
二.4  map
The map command shows a map of the current block. It can be combined with the /voption to produce a more verbose output. The map shows the offsets throughout the block where certain information can be found such as the block header, the data block header or the row directory.
If the set commands have not been used to set a current block, or it the user simply wishes to examine another block while keeping the current block their focus,the file name, file id, block or DBA can be specified with the command.
Map会通过偏移量来显示block里的详细信息,如block header,data block header 和row directory。 使用/v 选项,可以查看更详细的信息。
在不指定block的情况下,会显示当前block的信息,如果想显示其他block的信息,可以使用file name,file id,block 和DBA 来指定要显示的block。
 
--通过dba 来指定某个block
map /v dba 4,145
 
 
Map 显示的具体信息解释如下:
 
struct kcbh, 20 bytes
Block Header Structure
  ub1 type_kcbh
Block type (see Header Block Types below)
  ub1 frmt_kcbh
Block format 1=Oracle 7, 2=Oracle 8+
  ub1 spare1_kcbh
Not used
  ub1 spare2_kcbh
Not used
  ub4 rdba_kcbh
RDBA -Relative Data Block Address
  ub4 bas_kcbh
SCN Base
  ub2 wrp_kcbh
SCN Wrap
  ub1 seq_kcbh
Sequence number, incremented for every change made to the block at the same SCN
  ub1 flg_kcbh
Flag:
0x01 New Block
0x02 Delayed Logging Change advanced SCN/seq 0x04 Check value saved - block XOR‘s to zero
0x08 Temporary block
  ub2 chkval_kcbh
Optional block checksum (if DB_BLOCK_CHECKSUM=TRUE)
  ub2 spare3_kcbh
Not used
struct ktbbh, 72 bytes
Transaction Fixed Header Structure
  ub1 ktbbhtyp
Block type (1=DATA, 2=INDEX)
  union ktbbhsid, 4 bytes
Segment/Object ID
  struct ktbbhcsc, 8 bytes
SCN at last block cleanout
  b2 ktbbhict
Number of ITL slots
  ub1 ktbbhflg
0=on the freelist
  ub1 ktbbhfsl
ITL TX freelist slot
  ub4 ktbbhfnx
DBA of next block on the freelist
  struct ktbbhitl[2], 48 bytes
ITL list index
struct kdbh, 14 bytes
Data Header Structure
  ub1 kdbhflag
N=pctfree hit(clusters); F=do not put on freelist; K=flushable cluster keys
  b1 kdbhntab
Number of tables (>1 in clusters)
  b2 kdbhnrow
Number of rows
  sb2 kdbhfrre
First free row entry index; -1 = you have to add one
  sb2 kdbhfsbo
Freespace begin offset
  sb2 kdbhfseo
Freespace end offset
  b2 kdbhavsp
Available space in the block
  b2 kdbhtosp
Total available space when all TXs commit
struct kdbt[1], 4 bytes
Table Directory Entry Structure
  b2 kdbtoffs
 
  b2 kdbtnrow
 
sb2 kdbr[1]
Row Directory
ub1 freespace[8030]
Free Space
ub1 rowdata[38]
Row Data
ub4 tailchk
(See Tailchecks below)
 
 
       Different block types are designated by the first byte of the block. The following tableshows how to decode the block type:
       不同的block 可以第一个byte的值是不一样的。 具体值对应block 类型如下。
Header Block Types
ID
Type
01
Undo segment header
02
Undo data block
03
Save undo header
04
Save undo data block
05
Data segment header (temp, index, data and so on)
06
KTB managed data block (with ITL)
07
Temp table data block (no ITL)
08
Sort Key
09
Sort Run
10
Segment free list block
11
Data file header
 
可以通过dump block来查看对应的具体的值。 下文讲dump时会有相关的示例。
 
       oracleblocks 的最后4个bytes 是tail check。 下面看一下oracle 9i block的tail check 组成。
 
Tailchecks
       Thetail of an Oracle 8+ block is a concatenation of the lower order two bytes ofthe SCN base, the block type and the SCN sequence number.
      Oracleblock tail 由4个bytes组成,但实际上只用了低2个bytes来存放。 2个bytes的tail 由scn base,block type 和 scn sequence 组成。
 
E.g, if the SCN base number is 0x00029728,the block type is 06 and the SCN sequence number is 0x02, the tail check wouldbe 0x97280602:
 
SCN base     Type   SCN seq
9728           06        02
 
       Althoughthis tail check value is generated from three components, Oracle treats thefinal value as a single unsigned integer stored as a word (4-bytes). Onlittle-endian architecture machines, which include Intel, the value will bestores as low-order byte first.
       虽然tail check 由3个部分组成,但是oracle 把这3部分作为一个整体来存储,并且占用4个bytes。
       对于little-endian(低端)架构的机器,包括Intel, 他们会先存放low-order byte,即低位字节。
     
       Thereforeif the tail check is examined in the block using a standard block editor, orthe dump command which will be explained in the next section, the byte ordermay look different. A tail check of 0x97280602 stored on an Intel machine wouldbe written to disk as "02062897".
       可以通过标准block editor 或者dump 来查看tail check。 对于不同的机器,他们存储的顺序是不一样的。比如tail check 0x97280602 在Intel Machine 就被存储为02062897,因为它会先保存low-order bytes。
 
二.5  dump(d)
The dump command dumps the content of the block to the screen. It can be combinedwith the /v option to produce a more verbose output. TheDBA, Filename, File, Block and/or Offset to dump can be specified with thecommand. If these are not specified the current file, block and offsetas established with the set command will be dumped. The size of the dump islimited by the set count option and defaults to 512 bytes or alternatively thesize of the dump can be specified with the command.
dump命令可以将block 的内容显示到屏幕。 每次显示的bytes由count 控制,默认是512 bytes。 使用 /v 选项,可以显示更多详细信息。
dump /v dba 4,145 offset 0 count 128
 
 
二.6  examine(x)
       The examine command is used to display data from the block in raw or formattedoutput. The DBA, Filename, File, Block and/or Offset to examine can bespecified with the command. If these are not specified the current file, blockand offset as established with the set command will be examined. If the examinecommand is issued with just the block and offset to examine, bbed will displaythe data structure at that offset.
       --examine命令也是用来显示datablock的内容的。
       Unlikethe print command it cannot interpret data structures, but it can be used todisplay row information. Combined with knowledge of the data type of the row,it can be used to retrieve complete rows from the block:
      --print命令不能对data structures 进行一个解释说明。
 
       The examine command will interpret the data in the block according to the followingswitches:
Switch
Display Format
/b
b1, ub1 (byte)
/h
b2, ub2 (half-word)
/w
b4, ub4 (word)
/l
b8, ub8 (long) (was b4/ub4 in Oracle7).
/r
Oracle table/index row
 
       Theexamine command allows switches from the print command to be combined withthese specific switches to interpret data.
      --examine可以根据switch的方式和print 命令进行一个结合来对data 进行解释说明。
 
       Forexample if we wanted to interpret data as an Oracle table row with the firstcolumn character and the second and third columns numeric, we would execute thecommand as follows:
       BBED>x /rcnn
 
       Thefollowing example shows the print and examine commands being used to step throughthe first and second rows of a block, with the data interpreted as a row in theformat: character, number, number:
 
x /rcnn
 

select * from scott.emp;
 
二.7  find(f)
       The find command is used to locate data within a block. The command allows hex,string or numeric data to be searched for. The pattern can be searched for fromthe top of the block (offset 0) using the TOP directive, or from the currentposition using the CURR directive.
       find命令可以用来搜索关键字。 可以从offset 0 搜索到top 或者从当前的offset 搜索到top。
 
       Switchesare used to determine the data type of the pattern to search for. These areshown below:
Switch
Datatype
/x
Hexadecimal
/d
Decimal
/u
unsigned decimal
/o
Octal
/c
character (native)
Note: Number and Dates are not supported bythe find command.
       find 命令支持的switch 类型如上表,注意,find 不支持number和Date 。
 
select rowid,
dbms_rowid.rowid_relative_fno(rowid)rel_fno,
dbms_rowid.rowid_block_number(rowid)blockno,
dbms_rowid.rowid_row_number(rowid) rowno
from scott.emp;
 
set file 4
set block 145
set offset 0
find /c SCOTT top
 
d /v dba 4,145 offset 7864 count 128
 
SCOTT
 
 
二.8  copy
       The copy command is used to copy blocks from one location to another. As with other commands, the file or filename and offset can be specified, or the DBA can be specified instead.
 可以把一个块的内容拷贝到另一个块中。
命令格式如下:
BBED> copy dba 1,115362 to dba 1,115363
copy 是个危险的命令,慎用。
 
二.9  modify(m)
BBED> help modify
MODIFY[/x|d|u|o|c] numeric/character string
      [ DBA | FILE | FILENAME | BLOCK | OFFSET | symbol | *symbol ]
 
BBED>
 
       The modify command is used to change data inside a block. The DBA, Filename, File,Block and/or Offset to modify can be specified with the command. If these are not specified the current file, block and offset as established with the set command will be modified. Alternatively a symbol or symbol pointer can bespecified for modification.
       The pattern of bytes used to overwrite the original can be specified inhexadecimal, decimal, unsigned decimal, octal or character data using the sameswitches as the find command.
 可以修改块中的内容,该步骤不演示,下面实验有。
       在file 1,block 115362 有我们的Dave,我们这里把Dave 改成dmm。
modify /c HAHAH dba 4,31 offset 7864  该步骤不演示,下面实验有。
 
 
d /v dba 4,31 offset 7864 count 128
 
select * from scott.emp;
 
现在无改变。
sum apply
 
重启库才能生效。
shutdown immediate;
startup
select * from scott.emp;
 
 
二.10  assign
       The assign command does symbolic assignment, with type and range checking. Either target or source can be omitted for the current offset.
       For example, the following command assigns structure at current offset to file 4,block 2 ”s first ITL entry
BBED> assign dba 4, 145 ktbbhitl[0]
 指定结构 ,不演示。
二.11  sum
       Thesum command is used to check and set the block checksum. The DBA, Filename,File, Block and/or Offset to check can be specified with the command. If theseare not specified the current file, block and offset as established with theset command will be checked.
       Theapply directive can be used to update the checksum.
       我们可以使用bbed 对block 进行修改。 要使这些修改生效,就要使用sum命令。
该步骤不演示,下面实验有。
sum dba 4,31 apply  该步骤不演示,下面实验有。
 
重启库或清除缓冲区才能生效。
 
二.12  push / pop
       Thepush and pop commands are used to push a file, block and offset location onto amemory backed stack and then pop them back. This allows a current locationbeing edited to be temporarily saved while another location is examined ormodified.
Note that the stack only stores the location? it does notsave the contents.
       --push命令将对象放到内存的stack,pop 将对象从内存写回磁盘。
 
       Thefollowing example shows file 7, block 16, offset 8163 being examined. Thelocation is saved with the push command. We then move to file 6, block 1 beforereturning to DBA 7,16 with the pop command.
 
BBED> push dba 7,16
DBA 0x01c00010 (29360144 7,16)
OFFSET 8163
 
BBED> set dba 6,1
DBA 0x01800001 (25165825 6,1)
 
BBED> pop
DBA 0x01c00010 (29360144 7,16)
OFFSET 8163
       The command pop all can be used to remove all push‘d entries from the stack. Thecommand show all can be used to show all saved locations.
 
 
二.13  revert
       Therevert command is used to restore a file, filename, block or DBA to it‘soriginal state when bbed was started.
       revert是恢复自bbed 启动以来的所有修改。
 revert dba 4,31该步骤不演示,下面实验有。
 
sum dba 4,31 apply
 
重启库才能看到变化。
shutdown immediate
startup
 
或者:
alter system flush buffer_cache;
 
select * from scott.emp;
 
 
还是没有改变,flush 一下buffer cache之后就更改回来了。我们刚才在之前的测试时,是重启了DB。 看来也是启了flush buffer cache的作用。
 
二.14  undo
       Theundo command rolls back the last modify or assign command. If the undo commandis issued again the modification is re-done.
       undo命令是回滚最后一次的操作。
该步骤不演示,下面实验有。
modify /c HAHAH dba 4,31 offset 7864该步骤不演示,下面实验有。
 
d /v dba 4,31 offset 7864 count 128
 
sum apply
 
一定要提交。
如果不提交之前可以
undo  该步骤不演示,下面实验有。
 
alter system flush buffer_cache;
 
select * from scott.emp;
 
 
 
 
二.15  verify
       Theverify command is used to verify the integrity of the block. It performs asimilar function to the dbverify utility.
      verify命令用来验证block的完整性。
verify dba 4,145
 
查看有没有坏块 
 
二.16  corrupt
       The corrupt command is used to mark blocks as media corrupt.
       corrupt命令将一个block 标记为corrupt,这样db 在操作时就会跳过该block,从而避免错误。
verify dba 4,31 该步骤不演示,下面实验有。
 
corrupt dba 4,31该步骤不演示,下面实验有。
 
verify dba 4,31
 
注意: undo 命令不能undo 一个corruption,但是revert 命令却可以。
revert dba 4,31
 
sum apply
 
verify dba 4,31
 
 
二.17  修改数据块中的内容
本例综合运用上面的各种命令,修改块的内容,并撤销修改。
在sqlplus中操作
select * from scott.emp;
 
现在无改变。
 
select rowid,
dbms_rowid.rowid_relative_fno(rowid)rel_fno,
dbms_rowid.rowid_block_number(rowid)blockno,
dbms_rowid.rowid_row_number(rowid) rowno
from scott.emp;
 
在bbed中操作
set dba 4,145 offset 0
find /c SCOTT top
 
dump /v dba 4,145 offset 7864 count 128
 
注意这里面的Offsets:7864 to 7991, 它指的是这一行的一个地址。其中
S 的offset 是7864
C 的offset 是7865
O 的offset 是7866
T 的offset 是7867
空格也算offset。
modify /c HAHAH dba 4,145 offset 7864
 
sum apply
 
或者
sum dba 4,145 apply
 
dump /v dba 4,145 offset 7864 count 128
 
在sqlplus中操作
alter system flush buffer_cache;
select * from scott.emp;
 
二.17.1  下面撤销修改:
在bbed中操作
revert dba 4,145
 
sum dba 4,145 apply
 
在sqlplus中操作
alter system flush buffer_cache;
select * from scott.emp;
 
二.18  恢复delete的rows
When rows are deleted in Oracle the data is not actually removed. The row is simply marked as deleted and the free space counters and pointers adjusted accordingly. The status of a row is stored in the Row Header which occupies the first few bytes of each row.
当row 被delete 的时候,实际上data 并没有被remove,只是将该row 标记为delete,然后其对应的空间被统计为free space。 row 的status 存在每个row的row header里。
The Row Header consists of the Row Flag, Lock Byte (ITL entry) and Column Count.The first of these - the Row Flag - is a single byte that holds a bitmask thatshows the status of the row. The bitmask is decoded as follows:
 RowHeader 包含Row Flag,Lock Byte(ITL)和column Count。其中Row Flag占用1个byte,并且以bitmask 来保存。bitmask 的解释如下:
 
 
Cluster Key
Cluster Table Member
Head of row piece
Deleted
First data piece
Last data piece
1st Column continues from previous piece
Last column continues in next piece
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
二.18.1  删除前
在sqlplus中操作
select * from scott.emp;
 
select rowid,
dbms_rowid.rowid_relative_fno(rowid)rel_fno,
dbms_rowid.rowid_block_number(rowid)blockno,
dbms_rowid.rowid_row_number(rowid) rowno
from scott.emp;
 
col segment_name for a10
select extent_id,segment_name,bytes/1024 k,file_id,block_id from dba_extents where owner='SCOTT';
 
 
alter system checkpoint;
 
 
alter system dump datafile 4 block 145;
 
查询dump到哪个trace文件中:
oradebug setmypid
oradebug tracefile_name
 
more /u01/app/oracle/oradata/PROD/dump/diag/rdbms/prod/PROD/trace/PROD_ora_6241.trc
可以看到这个表有14条记录。
 
 
注意这里的fb: --H-FL--。 其有8个选项,每个值分别与bitmask 对应。
       Therefore,columns that fit within a single block, are not chained, migrated or part of aclustered table and are not deleted will have the following attributes:
       (1)Head of Row Piece
       (2)First Data Piece
       (3)Last Data Piece
如果一个row 没有被删除,那么它就具有上面的3个属性,即Flag 表示为:--H-FL--. 这里的字母分别代表属性的首字母。其对应的值:32 + 8 + 4 =44 or 0x2c.
如果一个row 被delete了,那么row flag 就会更新,bitmask 里的deleted 被设置为16. 此时row flag 为: 32 + 16 + 8 + 4 = 60 or 0x3c.
delete from scott.emp where empno=7900;
commit;
select * from scott.emp;
 
 
二.18.2  删除后
alter system checkpoint;
alter system dump datafile 4 block 145;
 
查询dump到哪个trace文件中:
oradebug setmypid
oradebug tracefile_name
 
more /u01/app/oracle/oradata/PROD/dump/diag/rdbms/prod/PROD/trace/PROD_ora_6241.trc
 
 
注意上面的标签被删除的数据是HDFL,一般是H-FL。
现在我们用bbed 将删除的内容找回来。
在bbed中操作
set dba 4,145 offset 0
find /c JAMES top
 
 
dump /v dba 4,145 offset 7706 count 128
 
d /v dba 4,145 offset 7705 count 128
 
比刚刚多了两个字符。
8个字符才是一个完整的信息,所以要改变4个偏移量才能展示完整的信息。
7706-8=7698,再加1=7699.
寻找原则:和row directory核对,寻找前面最接近的值。
d /v dba 4,145 offset 7699
 
这里已经出现了我们3c(deleted)标志,但是注意这里的位置的根据我们的查找的字符串来分的,实际在block里的分割方式不一样按照我们的offset 来进行。 我们可以通过row directory 来进行一个确认。
验证一下
p kdbr
 
p *kdbr[9]
p *kdbr[10]
p *kdbr[11]
p *kdbr[12]
 
确定7699就是3c的开头。
modify /x 2c offset 7699
 
sum apply
 
在sqlplus中操作
alter system flush buffer_cache;
select * from scott.emp;
 
之前delete 的数据已经恢复出来。
但是:
系统认为已经删掉了。
select count(*) from scott.emp;
 
alter table scott.emp move;
 
 
 
二.19  使用copy命令从旧数据文件中恢复delete的rows
将表scott.emp移动到我们的单独的datafile里(目的是查找清晰,并恢复上面的破坏):
col tablespace_name for a15
select tablespace_name,contents,status from dba_tablespaces;
 
col name for a50
select file#,name from v$datafile;
 
create tablespace lxtbs datafile '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/PROD/disk3/lxtbs01.dbf' size 50m;
 
alter table scott.emp move tablespace lxtbs;
alter index scott.pk_emp rebuild tablespace lxtbs;
 
col table_name for a10
select table_name,tablespace_name,blocks from dba_tables where owner='SCOTT';
 
select * from scott.emp;
 
select file#||' '||name||' '||bytes from v$datafile;
 
二.19.1  创建一个旧的数据文件
shutdown immediate;
 
关库后再操作:
cp /u01/app/oracle/oradata/PROD/disk3/lxtbs01.dbf /home/oracle
cd /home/oracle
ls
 
将copy 的bak datafile 添加到bbed 的parfile里面
vi file.txt
添加:
6 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/PROD/disk3/lxtbs01.dbf 52428800
7 /home/oracle/lxtbs01.dbf 52428800
 
最后的7号文件是我们添加的。
 
startup
 
 
select rowid,
dbms_rowid.rowid_relative_fno(rowid)rel_fno,
dbms_rowid.rowid_block_number(rowid)blockno,
dbms_rowid.rowid_row_number(rowid) rowno
from scott.emp;
 
col owner for a10
col segment_name for a10
select owner,segment_name,header_file,header_block,blocks from dba_segments where owner='SCOTT';
 
从这个查询结果,我们可以看到,对象保存在datafile 6里,从130 的block 开始存储,占用8个blocks。
       这里要注意的一点是:dba_segments 视图里的block 是从0开始的统计的,而bbed 里是从1. 所以我们在bbed中指定block时,需要加1(130会报错),也就是131
quit
bbed parfile=/home/oracle/bbed.par
blockedit
 
下面能查出东西来就行。
set dba 6,130 offset 0
p ktbbh
 
set dba 6,131 offset 0
p ktbbh
 
 
做一个误删除操作:
delete from scott.emp;
commit;
select * from scott.emp;
 
二.19.2  使用copy 从旧的datafile里恢复
set width 70
info
 
其中7是我们的旧的数据文件。
copy dba 7,131 to dba 6,131
 
copy剩下的7个块:
copy dba 7,132 to dba 6,132
copy dba 7,133 to dba 6,133
copy dba 7,134 to dba 6,134
copy dba 7,135 to dba 6,135
copy dba 7,136 to dba 6,136
copy dba 7,137 to dba 6,137
copy dba 7,138 to dba 6,138
sum apply
 
alter system flush buffer_cache;
select * from scott.emp;
 
如果出不来就再做一遍copy,数据就回来了,或者重启db数据也能回来。
但是:
select count(*) from scott.emp;
 
需要再move一次。
alter table scott.emp move tablespace users;
alter index scott.pk_emp rebuild tablespace users;
alter table scott.emp move tablespace lxtbs;
alter index scott.pk_emp rebuild tablespace lxtbs;
 
select count(*) from scott.emp;
 
 
 
二.20  坏块恢复(Rman Blockrecover)
有些人喜欢用bbed干一些弄简为繁的事情,比如控制文件丢失,或者介质故障开不了库,手工修改scn号开库,或坏块修复等。如果不是高手,最好不要用bbed进行高风险的工作,其实Oracle Rman提供了修复坏块的工具block recover。但前提条件是你得有一个可用的备份存在。
最好重新做一次备份:
rman target /
delete noprompt backup;
delete noprompt copy;
list backup;
list copy;
 
 
run{
shutdown immediate;
startup mount;
allocate channel c1 type disk;
allocate channel c2 type disk;
backup database format '/home/oracle/rman_bak/cold_bak/%d_%s_%p.bak';
alter database open;
}
 
run{
sql 'alter system switch logfile';
allocate channel c1 type disk;
allocate channel c2 type disk;
backup database format '/home/oracle/rman_bak/hot_bak/%d_%s_%p_hot.bak' filesperset 3;
sql 'alter system switch logfile';
}
 
/************************重新登录*************************/
sqlplus重新登录:
quit
sqlplus '/as sysdba'
bbed重新登录
quit
bbed parfile=/home/oracle/bbed.par
blockedit
/************************重新登录*************************/
 
 
 
 
二.20.1  制作坏块
先用bbed搞坏数据块。
select rowid,
dbms_rowid.rowid_relative_fno(rowid)rel_fno,
dbms_rowid.rowid_block_number(rowid)blockno,
dbms_rowid.rowid_row_number(rowid) rowno
from scott.dept;
 
col segment_name for a10
select owner,segment_name,header_file,header_block,blocks from dba_segments where owner='SCOTT';
 
加一变成129.
set dba 4,128 offset 0
p ktbbh
 
set dba 4,129 offset 0
p ktbbh
 
map
 
d /v offset 0 count 128
 
modify /x 12345678 offset 0     单步执行,或copy命令制作坏块
sum apply
 
d /v offset 0 count 128
 
alter system flush buffer_cache;
select * from scott.dept;
 
--当Oracle 认为一个block 是corrupt时,会将该block的sequence number 标记为0xff.  该值可以通过seq_kcbh 属性查看。
 
set dba 4,129
p kcbh
 
verify dba 4,129
 
二.20.2  恢复坏块
不建议使用bbed来操作,rman有工具可以很好的处理,bbed做的话就是revert回去就好了。
BBED> revert
All changes made in this session will be rolled back. Proceed? (Y/N) Y
Reverted file '/oracle/app/oracle/oralhr/users01.dbf', block 520
Reverted file '/oracle/app/oracle/oralhr/users01.dbf', block 523
Warning: contents of previous BIFILE will be lost. Proceed? (Y/N) Y
 
下边来尝试rman恢复:
rman target /
 
不要执行:只适用于一两个坏块 blockrecover datafile 4 block 129,130;
如果有多个坏块,最好先校验:
backup validate datafile 4; 
 
select * from v$database_block_corruption;
 
修复全部坏块。
blockrecover corruption list;
 
alter system flush buffer_cache;
select * from scott.dept;
 
用rman的备份,修复了这个块。
select * from v$database_block_corruption; 
 
set dba 4,129
d /v offset 0 count 128
 
 
二.20.3  坏块的影响
再次搞坏数据块:
set dba 4,129
d /v offset 0 count 128
modify /x 12345678 offset 0
sum apply
 
 
alter system flush buffer_cache;
select * from scott.dept;
 
rman内操作:
backup datafile 4;
 
RMAN> backup datafile 4;
 
Starting backup at 2016-04-06 14:25:42
using channel ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00004 name=/oracle/app/oracle/oralhr/users01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 2016-04-06 14:25:42
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-00569: =============== ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ===============
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-03009: failure of backup command on ORA_DISK_1 channel at 04/06/2016 14:25:45
ORA-19566: exceeded limit of 0 corrupt blocks for file /oracle/app/oracle/oralhr/users01.dbf
 
col tablespace_name for a10
col owner for a10
col owner for a10
col PARTITION_NAME for a10
SELECT tablespace_name,segment_type,owner,segment_name,partition_name
FROM dba_extents
WHERE file_id = &file_id AND &block_id BETWEEN block_id AND block_id+blocks-1;
输入:
4
129
 
run{
  set maxcorrupt for datafile 4 to 2;
  backup datafile 4 tag='2corruptblock';
}
 
这样才能备份,但是推荐先修复坏块:
backup validate datafile 4; 
 
blockrecover corruption list;
 
backup datafile 4;
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