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分类: Oracle

2008-12-28 22:19:01

第一章:日志管理

1.forcing log switches
    sql>; alter system switch logfile;
2.forcing checkpoints
    sql>; alter system checkpoint;
3.adding online redo log groups
    sql>; alter database add logfile [group 4]
    sql>; ('/disk3/log4a.rdo','/disk4/log4b.rdo') size 1m;
4.adding online redo log members
    sql>; alter database add logfile member
    sql>; '/disk3/log1b.rdo' to group 1,
    sql>; '/disk4/log2b.rdo' to group 2;
5.changes the name of the online redo logfile
    sql>; alter database rename file 'c:/oracle/oradata/oradb/redo01.log'
    sql>; to 'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log';
6.drop online redo log groups
    sql>; alter database drop logfile group 3;
7.drop online redo log members
    sql>; alter database drop logfile member 'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log';
8.clearing online redo log files
    sql>; alter database clear [unarchived] logfile 'c:/oracle/log2a.rdo';
9.using logminer analyzing redo logfiles
    a. in the init.ora specify utl_file_dir = ' '
    b. sql>; execute dbms_logmnr_d.build('oradb.ora','c:\oracle\oradb\log');
    c. sql>; execute dbms_logmnr_add_logfile('c:\oracle\oradata\oradb\redo01.log',
       sql>; dbms_logmnr.new);
    d. sql>; execute dbms_logmnr.add_logfile('c:\oracle\oradata\oradb\redo02.log',
       sql>; dbms_logmnr.addfile);
    e. sql>; execute dbms_logmnr.start_logmnr(dictfilename=>;'c:\oracle\oradb\log\oradb.ora');
    f. sql>; select * from v$logmnr_contents(v$logmnr_dictionary,v$logmnr_parameters
       sql>; v$logmnr_logs);
    g. sql>; execute dbms_logmnr.end_logmnr;

第二章:表空间管理
1.create tablespaces
    sql>; create tablespace tablespace_name datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\file1.dbf' size 100m,
    sql>; 'c:\oracle\oradata\file2.dbf' size 100m minimum extent 550k [logging/nologging]
    sql>; default storage (initial 500k next 500k maxextents 500 pctinccease 0)
    sql>; [online/offline] [permanent/temporary] [extent_management_clause]
2.locally managed tablespace
    sql>; create tablespace user_data datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\user_data01.dbf'
    sql>; size 500m extent management local uniform size 10m;
3.temporary tablespace
    sql>; create temporary tablespace temp tempfile 'c:\oracle\oradata\temp01.dbf'
    sql>; size 500m extent management local uniform size 10m;
4.change the storage setting
    sql>; alter tablespace app_data minimum extent 2m;
    sql>; alter tablespace app_data default storage(initial 2m next 2m maxextents 999);
5.taking tablespace offline or online
    sql>; alter tablespace app_data offline;
    sql>; alter tablespace app_data online;
6.read_only tablespace
    sql>; alter tablespace app_data read only|write;
7.droping tablespace
    sql>; drop tablespace app_data including contents;
8.enableing automatic extension of data files
    sql>; alter tablespace app_data add datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data01.dbf' size 200m
    sql>; autoextend on next 10m maxsize 500m;
9.change the size fo data files manually
    sql>; alter database datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf' resize 200m;
10.Moving data files: alter tablespace
    sql>; alter tablespace app_data rename datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf'
    sql>; to 'c:\oracle\app_data.dbf';
11.moving data files:alter database
    sql>; alter database rename file 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf'
    sql>; to 'c:\oracle\app_data.dbf';

第三章:表

1.create a table
    sql>; create table table_name (column datatype,column datatype]....)
    sql>; tablespace tablespace_name [pctfree integer] [pctused integer]
    sql>; [initrans integer] [maxtrans integer]
    sql>; storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50)
    sql>; [logging|nologging] [cache|nocache]
2.copy an existing table
    sql>; create table table_name [logging|nologging] as subquery
3.create temporary table
    sql>; create global temporary table xay_temp as select * from xay;
         on commit preserve rows/on commit delete rows
4.pctfree = (average row size - initial row size) *100 /average row size
  pctused = 100-pctfree- (average row size*100/available data space)
5.change storage and block utilization parameter
    sql>; alter table table_name pctfree=30 pctused=50 storage(next 500k
    sql>; minextents 2 maxextents 100);
6.manually allocating extents
    sql>; alter table table_name allocate extent(size 500k datafile 'c:/oracle/data.dbf');
7.move tablespace
    sql>; alter table employee move tablespace users;
8.deallocate of unused space
    sql>; alter table table_name deallocate unused [keep integer]
9.truncate a table
    sql>; truncate table table_name;
10.drop a table
    sql>; drop table table_name [cascade constraints];
11.drop a column
    sql>; alter table table_name drop column comments cascade constraints checkpoint 1000;
         alter table table_name drop columns continue;
12.mark a column as unused
    sql>; alter table table_name set unused column comments cascade constraints;
         alter table table_name drop unused columns checkpoint 1000;
         alter table orders drop columns continue checkpoint 1000
         data_dictionary : dba_unused_col_tabs

第四章:索引

1.creating function-based indexes
    sql>; create index summit.item_quantity on summit.item(quantity-quantity_shipped);
2.create a B-tree index  
    sql>; create [unique] index index_name on table_name(column,.. asc/desc) tablespace
    sql>; tablespace_name [pctfree integer] [initrans integer] [maxtrans integer]
    sql>; [logging | nologging] [nosort] storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0
    sql>; maxextents 50);
3.pctfree(index)=(maximum number of rows-initial number of rows)*100/maximum number of rows
4.creating reverse key indexes
    sql>; create unique index xay_id on xay(a) reverse pctfree 30 storage(initial 200k
    sql>; next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) tablespace indx;
5.create bitmap index
    sql>; create bitmap index xay_id on xay(a) pctfree 30 storage( initial 200k next 200k
    sql>; pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) tablespace indx;
6.change storage parameter of index
    sql>; alter index xay_id storage (next 400k maxextents 100);
7.allocating index space
    sql>; alter index xay_id allocate extent(size 200k datafile 'c:/oracle/index.dbf');
8.alter index xay_id deallocate unused;

第五章:约束

1.define constraints as immediate or deferred
    sql>; alter session set constraint[s] = immediate/deferred/default;
         set constraint[s] constraint_name/all immediate/deferred;
2.  sql>; drop table table_name cascade constraints
    sql>; drop tablespace tablespace_name including contents cascade constraints
3. define constraints while create a table
    sql>; create table xay(id number(7) constraint xay_id primary key deferrable
    sql>; using index storage(initial 100k next 100k) tablespace indx);
     primary key/unique/references table(column)/check
4.enable constraints
    sql>; alter table xay enable novalidate constraint xay_id;
5.enable constraints
    sql>; alter table xay enable validate constraint xay_id;

第六章:LOAD数据
  
1.loading data using direct_load insert
    sql>; insert /*+append */ into emp nologging
    sql>; select * from emp_old;
2.parallel direct-load insert
    sql>; alter session enable parallel dml;
    sql>; insert /*+parallel(emp,2) */ into emp nologging
    sql>; select * from emp_old;
3.using sql*loader
    sql>; sqlldr scott/tiger \
    sql>; control = ulcase6.ctl \
    sql>; log = ulcase6.log direct=true

第七章:reorganizing data

1.using expoty
  $exp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp) file=c:\emp.dmp log=exp.log compress=n direct=y
2.using import
  $imp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp) file=emp.dmp log=imp.log ignore=y
3.transporting a tablespace
   sql>;alter tablespace sales_ts read only;
     $exp sys/.. file=xay.dmp transport_tablespace=y tablespace=sales_ts
      triggers=n constraints=n
     $copy datafile
    $imp sys/.. file=xay.dmp transport_tablespace=y datafiles=(/disk1/sles01.dbf,/disk2
     /sles02.dbf)
     sql>; alter tablespace sales_ts read write;
4.checking transport set
    sql>; DBMS_tts.transport_set_check(ts_list =>;'sales_ts' ..,incl_constraints=>;true);
       在表transport_set_violations 中查看
    sql>; dbms_tts.isselfcontained  为true 是, 表示自包含

第八章: managing password security and resources
  
1.controlling account lock and password
   sql>; alter user juncky identified by oracle account unlock;
2.user_provided password function
    sql>; function_name(userid in varchar2(30),password in varchar2(30),
                       old_password in varchar2(30)) return boolean
3.create a profile : password setting
    sql>; create profile grace_5 limit failed_login_attempts 3
    sql>; password_lock_time unlimited password_life_time 30
    sql>;password_reuse_time 30 password_verify_function verify_function
    sql>; password_grace_time 5;
4.altering a profile
    sql>; alter profile default failed_login_attempts 3
    sql>; password_life_time 60 password_grace_time 10;
5.drop a profile
    sql>; drop profile grace_5 [cascade];
6.create a profile : resource limit
    sql>; create profile developer_prof limit sessions_per_user 2
    sql>; cpu_per_session 10000 idle_time 60 connect_time 480;
7. view =>; resource_cost    : alter resource cost
   dba_Users,dba_profiles
8. enable resource limits
   sql>; alter system set resource_limit=true;

第九章:Managing users

1.create a user: database authentication
    sql>; create user juncky identified by oracle default tablespace users
    sql>; temporary tablespace temp quota 10m on data password expire
    sql>; [account lock|unlock] [profile profilename|default];
2.change user quota on tablespace
    sql>; alter user juncky quota 0 on users;
3.drop a user
    sql>; drop user juncky [cascade];
4. monitor user
    view: dba_users , dba_ts_quotas

第十章:managing privileges

1.system privileges:   view =>; system_privilege_map ,dba_sys_privs,session_privs
2.grant system privilege
    sql>; grant create session,create table to managers;
    sql>; grant create session to scott with admin option;
    with admin option can grant or revoke privilege from any user or role;
3.sysdba and sysoper privileges:
    sysoper: startup,shutdown,alter database open|mount,alter database backup controlfile,
             alter tablespace begin/end backup,recover database
             alter database archivelog,restricted session
    sysdba: sysoper privileges with admin option,create database,recover database until
4.password file members:  view:=>; v$pwfile_users
5.O7_dictionary_accessibility =true restriction access to view or tables in other schema
6.revoke system privilege
    sql>; revoke create table from karen;
    sql>; revoke create session from scott;
7.grant object privilege
    sql>; grant execute on dbms_pipe to public;
    sql>; grant update(first_name,salary) on employee to karen with grant option;
8.display object privilege : view =>; dba_tab_privs, dba_col_privs
9.revoke object privilege
    sql>; revoke execute on dbms_pipe from scott [cascade constraints];
10.audit record view :=>; sys.aud$
11. protecting the audit trail
     sql>; audit delete  on sys.aud$ by access;
12.statement auditing
     sql>; audit user;
13.privilege auditing
     sql>; audit select any table by summit by access;
14.schema object auditing
     sql>; audit lock on summit.employee by access whenever successful;
15.view audit option : view=>; all_def_audit_opts,dba_stmt_audit_opts,dba_priv_audit_opts,dba_obj_audit_opts
16.view audit result: view=>; dba_audit_trail,dba_audit_exists,dba_audit_object,dba_audit_session,dba_audit_statement
   
第十一章: manager role
  
1.create roles
    sql>; create role sales_clerk;
    sql>; create role hr_clerk identified by bonus;
    sql>; create role hr_manager identified externally;
2.modify role
    sql>; alter role sales_clerk identified by commission;
    sql>; alter role hr_clerk identified externally;
    sql>; alter role hr_manager not identified;
3.assigning roles
    sql>; grant sales_clerk to scott;
    sql>; grant hr_clerk to hr_manager;
    sql>; grant hr_manager to scott with admin option;
4.establish default role
    sql>; alter user scott default role hr_clerk,sales_clerk;
    sql>; alter user scott default role all;
    sql>; alter user scott default role all except hr_clerk;
    sql>; alter user scott default role none;
5.enable and disable roles
    sql>; set role hr_clerk;
    sql>; set role sales_clerk identified by commission;
    sql>; set role all except sales_clerk;
    sql>; set role none;
6.remove role from user
    sql>; revoke sales_clerk from scott;
    sql>; revoke hr_manager from public;
7.remove role
    sql>; drop role hr_manager;
8.display role information
     view: =>;dba_roles,dba_role_privs,role_role_privs,dba_sys_privs,role_sys_privs,role_tab_privs,session_roles

第十二章:  BACKUP and RECOVERY

1. v$sga,v$instance,v$process,v$bgprocess,v$database,v$datafile,v$sgastat
2. Rman need set dbwr_IO_slaves or backup_tape_IO_slaves  and large_pool_size
3. Monitoring Parallel Rollback
   >; v$fast_start_servers  , v$fast_start_transactions
4.perform a closed database backup (noarchivelog)
   >; shutdown immediate
   >; cp files /backup/
   >; startup
5.restore to a different location
   >; connect system/manager as sysdba
   >; startup mount
   >; alter database rename file '/disk1/../user.dbf' to '/disk2/../user.dbf';
   >; alter database open;
6.recover syntax
   --recover a mounted database
    >;recover database;
    >;recover datafile '/disk1/data/df2.dbf';
    >;alter database recover database;
   --recover an opened database
    >;recover tablespace user_data;
    >;recover datafile 2;
    >;alter database recover datafile 2;
7.how to apply redo log files automatically
    >;set autorecovery on
    >;recover automatic datafile 4;
8.complete recovery:
   --method 1(mounted databae)
     >;copy c:\backup\user.dbf c:\oradata\user.dbf
     >;startup mount
     >;recover datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf;
     >;alter database open;
   --method 2(opened database,initially opened,not system or rollback datafile)
     >;copy c:\backup\user.dbf c:\oradata\user.dbf (alter tablespace offline)
     >;recover datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' or
     >;recover tablespace user_data;
     >;alter database datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' online or
     >;alter tablespace user_data online;
   --method 3(opened database,initially closed not system or rollback datafile)
     >;startup mount
     >;alter database datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' offline;
     >;alter database open
     >;copy c:\backup\user.dbf d:\oradata\user.dbf
     >;alter database rename file 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' to 'd:\oradata\user.dbf'
     >;recover datafile 'e:\oradata\user.dbf' or recover tablespace user_data;
     >;alter tablespace user_data online;
   --method 4(loss of data file with no backup and have all archive log)
     >;alter tablespace user_data offline immediate;
     >;alter database create datafile 'd:\oradata\user.dbf' as 'c:\oradata\user.dbf''
     >;recover tablespace user_data;
     >;alter tablespace user_data online
5.perform an open database backup
   >; alter tablespace user_data begin backup;
   >; copy files /backup/
   >; alter database datafile '/c:/../data.dbf' end backup;
   >; alter system switch logfile;
6.backup a control file
   >; alter database backup controlfile to 'control1.bkp';
   >; alter database backup controlfile to trace;
7.recovery (noarchivelog mode)
   >; shutdown abort
   >; cp files
   >; startup
8.recovery of file in backup mode
   >;alter database datafile 2 end backup;
9.clearing redo log file
   >;alter database clear unarchived logfile group 1;
   >;alter database clear unarchived logfile group 1 unrecoverable datafile;
10.redo log recovery
   >;alter database add logfile group 3 'c:\oradata\redo03.log' size 1000k;
   >;alter database drop logfile group 1;
   >;alter database open;
    or >;cp c:\oradata\redo02.log' c:\oradata\redo01.log
       >;alter database clear logfile 'c:\oradata\log01.log';
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