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分类: 系统运维

2014-06-26 11:52:40

Salt安装与日常使用

安装

ubuntu系统安装

注: 本部分内容出标题外,其他内容来自于  ,与转载原文不同

  • 添加源

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:saltstack/salt

  • 安装服务端或者客户端

sudo apt-get install salt-master

 

sudo apt-get install salt-minion

redhat或者centos的话,安装使用需要安装第三个源

如果你是5版本

wget && rpm -vih epel-release-5-4.noarch.rpm

如果是6版本,使用

wget

安装

yum install salt-master

yum install salt-minion

The Salt master communicates with the minions using an AES-encrypted ZeroMQ connection. These communications are done over ports 4505 and 4506, which need to be accessible on the master only. This document outlines suggested firewall rules for allowing these incoming connections to the master.

Note

No firewall configuration needs to be done on Salt minions. These changes refer to the master only.

配置

master端配置

vim /etc/salt/master

interface: 192.168.56.102

写成你本机的ip

在slave端配置

vim /etc/salt/minion

master: 192.168.56.102

写你服务端的ip

id: localhost

是注明自己的标示。

客户端/etc/init.d/salt-minion start 日志文件默认是这个/var/log/salt/minion

服务端/etc/init.d/salt-master start 日志文件默认是这个/var/log/salt/master

[root@centos salt]# salt-key -L

Accepted Keys:

server.hadoop.com

Unaccepted Keys:

localhost

Rejected Keys:

查看你的key情况

同意加入localhost

[root@centos salt]# salt-key -L

Accepted Keys:

server.hadoop.com

Unaccepted Keys:

localhost

Rejected Keys:

[root@centos salt]# salt-key -a localhost

Key for minion localhost accepted.

[root@centos salt]# salt-key -L

Accepted Keys:

localhost

server.hadoop.com

Unaccepted Keys:

Rejected Keys:

查看一下网络连接情况(也就是看看能否连接客户端)

[root@centos salt]# salt '*' test.ping

localhost:

    True

server.hadoop.com:

    True

先前使用*代表所有机器,如果想单独的话,可以使用

[root@centos salt]# salt 'localhost' cmd.run hostname

localhost:

centos

如果想运行多个的话,可以使用-L

[root@centos salt]# salt -L 'server.hadoop.com,localhost' cmd.run hostname

server.hadoop.com:

    server.hadoop.com

localhost:

centos

还可以使用正则

[root@centos salt]# salt -E 'server*' cmd.run hostname

server.hadoop.com:

    server.hadoop.com

-G 这个参数很强大会根据默认的grain的结果来指定最新 grain这个东西就像puppet里面的facter这个东西

[root@centos salt]# salt -G 'os:Centos' test.ping

localhost:

    True

[root@centos salt]# salt -G 'os:Ubuntu' test.ping

server.hadoop.com:

True

如果想查看哪个项的话

[root@centos test]# salt '*' grains.item os

server.hadoop.com:

  os: Ubuntu

localhost:

  os: CentOS

执行python代码

[root@centos salt]# salt '*' cmd.exec_code python 'import sys;print sys.version'

localhost:

    2.6.6 (r266:84292, Feb 22 2013, 00:00:18)

    [GCC 4.4.7 20120313 (Red Hat 4.4.7-3)]

server.hadoop.com:

    2.7.3 (default, Aug  1 2012, 05:14:39)

    [GCC 4.6.3]

分组操作

在master里配置

nodegroups:

   group1: 'localhost'

   group2: 'server.hadoop.com'

可以把localhost分给group1,server.hadoop.com分给group2

然后重启salt-master

[root@centos salt]# salt -N group1 test.ping

localhost:

True

[root@centos salt]# salt -N group2 test.ping

server.hadoop.com:

True

查看网卡ip

[root@centos /]# salt 'localhost' network.interfaces

localhost:

    ----------

    eth0:

        ----------

        hwaddr:

            08:00:27:59:bb:1f

        inet:

            ----------

            - address:

                192.168.56.102

            - broadcast:

                192.168.56.255

            - label:

                eth0

            - netmask:

                255.255.255.0

        inet6:

            ----------

            - address:

                fe80::a00:27ff:fe59:bb1f

            - prefixlen:

                64

        up:

            True

    eth1:

        ----------

        hwaddr:

            08:00:27:ba:ad:23

        inet:

            ----------

            - address:

                192.168.14.182

            - broadcast:

                192.168.14.255

            - label:

                eth1

            - netmask:

                255.255.255.0

        inet6:

            ----------

            - address:

                fe80::a00:27ff:feba:ad23

            - prefixlen:

                64

        up:

            True

    lo:

        ----------

        hwaddr:

            00:00:00:00:00:00

        inet:

            ----------

            - address:

                127.0.0.1

            - broadcast:

                None

            - label:

                lo

            - netmask:

                255.0.0.0

        inet6:

            ----------

            - address:

                ::1

            - prefixlen:

                128

        up:

            True

 


下面是我的测试

[root@centos salt]# salt -C 'G@os:ubuntu' test.ping

server.hadoop.com:

True

[root@centos salt]# salt -C 'E@server.\w+' test.ping

server.hadoop.com:

True

[root@centos salt]# salt -C 'P@os:(centos)' test.ping

localhost:

    True

[root@centos salt]# salt -C 'P@os:(centos|ubuntu)' test.ping

server.hadoop.com:

    True

localhost:

True

[root@centos salt]# salt -C 'L@localhost,server.hadoop.com' test.ping

server.hadoop.com:

    True

localhost:

True

[root@centos salt]# salt -C 'S@192.168.56.0/24' test.ping

server.hadoop.com:

    True

localhost:

True

 


查看磁盘空间

[root@centos tmp]# salt 'localhost' disk.usage

localhost:

    ----------

    /:

        ----------

        1K-blocks:

            28423176

        available:

            21572708

        capacity:

            21%

        filesystem:

            /dev/mapper/vg_centos-lv_root

        used:

            5406628

    /boot:

        ----------

        1K-blocks:

            495844

        available:

            438658

        capacity:

            7%

        filesystem:

            /dev/sda1

        used:

            31586

    /dev/shm:

        ----------

        1K-blocks:

            510204

        available:

            510204

        capacity:

            0%

        filesystem:

            tmpfs

        used:

            0

[root@centos tmp]# df -h

Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on

/dev/mapper/vg_centos-lv_root

                       28G  5.2G   21G  21% /

tmpfs                 499M     0  499M   0% /dev/shm

/dev/sda1             485M   31M  429M   7% /boot

 


如果想查看所有minion的连接情况,可以使用salt-run manage.status

[root@centos apache]# salt '*' test.ping

server.hadoop.com:

    True

localhost:

    True

[root@centos apache]#

[root@centos apache]#

[root@centos apache]# salt-run manage.status

down:

    - 230

up:

    - localhost

    - server.hadoop.com

如果想安装软件可以使用pkg.install

[root@centos echoping]# salt 'localhost' pkg.install dos2unix

Loaded plugins: fastestmirror

Loaded plugins: fastestmirror

Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile

 * base: mirror.esocc.com

 * epel: mirrors.vinahost.vn

 * extras: mirror.esocc.com

 * rpmforge: mirror1.hs-esslingen.de

 * updates: centosc6.centos.org

Running rpm_check_debug

Loaded plugins: fastestmirror

localhost:

    ----------

    dos2unix:

        ----------

        new:

            3.1-37.el6

        old:

 

[root@centos echoping]# rpm -qa|grep dos2unix

dos2unix-3.1-37.el6.x86_64

查看你已经安装的包

salt 'localhost' pkg.list_pkgs

 

删除包

 

bc. [root@centos tmp]# salt 'localhost' pkg.remove echoping

Loaded plugins: fastestmirror

Loaded plugins: fastestmirror

Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile

 * base: mirror.esocc.com

 * epel: mirror.neu.edu.cn

 * extras: mirror.esocc.com

 * rpmforge: mirrors.neusoft.edu.cn

 * updates: mirror.esocc.com

Running rpm_check_debug

Loaded plugins: fastestmirror

localhost:

    - echoping

[root@centos tmp]# rpm -qa|grep echoping

查看你repos(由于内容过多,我就只列出命令了)

salt 'localhost' pkg.list_repos

配置类似puppet操作

由于我的master上的存放信息目录是在/var/salt上

file_roots:

  base:

     - /var/salt/

所以进入换个目录

下面是我的配置

[root@centos salt]# cat top.sls

base:

    '*': #对象名,我使用*代表所有

    - vim #资源文件名

如果你的资源文件存放在一个目录里,比如在/var/salt/apache/vim.sls,

那么可以写为

-apache.vim

代表apache目录下的vim.sls

下面测试

Top里内容为

[root@centos salt]# cat top.sls

base:

    'localhost':

      - echoping.echoping#代表echoping目录下的echoping.sls文件

[root@centos echoping]# pwd

/var/salt/echoping

[root@centos echoping]# cat echoping.sls

echoping:   #id宣告

  pkg:  #安装包管理

    - name: echoping    #安装哪个软件

    - installed         #要求是安装

  service:      #服务管理

    - name: httpd   #指定服务

    - running       #服务运行状态

    - reload: True  #是否重启

    - watch:        #如果下面文件发生变化,就重启

      - file: /tmp/test_echoping.conf   #监控的文件地址

/tmp/test_echoping.conf:    #宣告

  file.managed:     #文件管理

    - source: salt://echoping/test_echoping.conf    #源数据在哪里

    - user: root                                #用户

    - group: root                               #组

    - mode: 644                             #权限

    - backup: minion                            #备份一份

 


运行的话,可以使用salt 'localhost' state.highstate

注意,如果需要把服务设置为开机启动可以使用- enable:True

由于我设置的是有变化就重启http,所以先查看http的状态

[root@centos salt]# ps -ef|grep httpd

root      1430     1  0 17:03 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    1436  1430  0 17:03 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    1469  1430  0 17:03 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    1470  1430  0 17:03 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    1471  1430  0 17:03 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    1472  1430  0 17:03 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    1473  1430  0 17:03 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    1474  1430  0 17:03 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    1475  1430  0 17:03 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    1476  1430  0 17:03 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

root      1886  1782  0 17:04 pts/0    00:00:00 grep httpd

[root@centos salt]# date

Fri Aug  9 17:04:54 CST 2013

在17:04启动,然后在运行salt 'localhost' state.highstate

[root@centos salt]# salt 'localhost' state.highstate

Info: Running a benchmark to measure system clock frequency...

Info: Finished RDTSC test. To prevent the startup delay from this benchmark, set the environment variable RDTSC_FREQUENCY to 2495 on this system. This value is dependent upon the CPU clock speed and architecture and should be determined separately for each server.

localhost:

----------

    State: - file

    Name:      /tmp/test_echoping.conf

    Function:  managed

        Result:    True

        Comment:   File /tmp/test_echoping.conf updated

        Changes:   diff: New file

 

----------

    State: - pkg

    Name:      echoping

    Function:  installed

        Result:    True

        Comment:   The following packages were installed/updated: echoping.

        Changes:   echoping: { new : 5.2.0-1.2.el6.rf

old :

}

 

----------

    State: - service

    Name:      httpd

    Function:  running

        Result:    True

        Comment:   Service restarted

        Changes:   httpd: True

可以看到已经安装了echoping,并且更新了/tmp/test_echoping.conf

在查看一下httpd情况

[root@centos salt]# ps -ef|grep httpd

root      2025     1  0 17:06 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    2028  2025  0 17:06 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    2031  2025  0 17:06 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    2032  2025  0 17:06 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    2033  2025  0 17:06 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    2034  2025  0 17:06 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    2035  2025  0 17:06 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    2036  2025  0 17:06 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    2037  2025  0 17:06 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    2038  2025  0 17:06 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

root      2043  1782  3 17:06 pts/0    00:00:00 grep httpd

[root@centos salt]# date

Fri Aug  9 17:06:57 CST 2013

可以看到已经重启了。

在查看一下文件传输情况

源文件

[root@centos salt]# cat /var/salt/echoping/test_echoping.conf

this is test echoping

this twice test

生成的文件

[root@centos salt]# cat /tmp/test_echoping.conf

this is test echoping

this twice test


查看echoping是否安装

[root@centos salt]# rpm -qa|grep echoping

echoping-5.2.0-1.2.el6.rf.x86_64

已经安装了

在看看下面的用户与权限

[root@centos salt]# ll /tmp/test_echoping.conf

-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 38 Aug  9 17:05 /tmp/test_echoping.conf

也是我们定义的

如果在给/var/salt/echoping/test_echoping.conf修改了,在运行

[root@centos echoping]# salt 'localhost' state.highstate

localhost:

----------

    State: - file

    Name:      /tmp/test_echoping.conf

    Function:  managed

        Result:    True

        Comment:   File /tmp/test_echoping.conf updated

        Changes:   diff: ---

+++

@@ -1,2 +1,3 @@

 this is test echoping

 this twice test

+this is 3

----------

    State: - service

    Name:      httpd

    Function:  running

        Result:    True

        Comment:   Service restarted

        Changes:   httpd: True

然后服务也重启了

[root@centos echoping]# ps -ef|grep httpd

root      2352     1  0 17:21 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    2354  2352  0 17:21 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    2355  2352  0 17:21 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    2356  2352  0 17:21 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    2357  2352  0 17:21 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    2358  2352  0 17:21 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    2359  2352  0 17:21 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    2360  2352  0 17:21 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    2361  2352  0 17:21 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

apache    2362  2352  0 17:21 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/httpd

root      2372  2183  0 17:22 pts/1    00:00:00 grep httpd

[root@centos echoping]# date

Fri Aug  9 17:23:01 CST 2013

如果想让salt能想puppet那样定时自动的获取配置,可以在/etc/salt/minion里配置

schedule:

  highstate:

    function: state.highstate

    minutes: 60

然后重启salt-minion

请注意,在服务端可以使用salt 'localhost' state.highstate,在客户端的话,使用salt-callstate.highstate

如果使用grains来区分不同的系统安装不同的东东,可以使用下面(比如安装apache,在centos里安装httpd,在ubuntu里安装apache2)

[root@centos apache]# cat apache.sls

apache:

   pkg:

     {% if grains['os'] == 'CentOS'%}

     - name: httpd

     {% elif grains['os'] == 'Ubuntu'%}

     - name: apache2

     {% endif %}

     - installed

   service:

     {% if grains['os'] == 'CentOS'%}

     - name: httpd

     {% elif grains['os'] == 'Ubuntu'%}

     - name: apache2

     {% endif %}

     - running

     - reload: True

     - watch:

       - pkg: apache

       - file: /tmp/test.conf

/tmp/test.conf:

  file.managed:

    - source: salt://apache/test.conf

    - user: root

    - group: root

- mode: 644

[root@centos apache]# cat test.conf

this is test apache

this is 2

然后运行更新

[root@centos apache]# salt 'server.hadoop.com' state.highstate

server.hadoop.com:

----------

    State: - file

    Name:      /tmp/test.conf

    Function:  managed

        Result:    True

        Comment:   File /tmp/test.conf updated

        Changes:   diff: New file

 

----------

    State: - pkg

    Name:      apache2

    Function:  installed

        Result:    True

        Comment:   Package apache2 is already installed

        Changes:

----------

    State: - service

    Name:      apache2

    Function:  running

        Result:    True

        Comment:   Service restarted

        Changes:   apache2: True

注意,如果你想使用命令的话,可以使用cmd.wait

echo-msg:

  cmd.wait:

    - name: echo 'this is test' >/tmp/echo-msg

    - user: root

    - watch:

      - pkg: apache

自定义模块

查看你master上的file_root路径,比如我的为

file_roots:

  base:

     - /var/salt/

所以在/var/salt里创建个_modules

mkdir /var/salt/_modules

然后进入目录编写模块

cd /var/salt/_modules

[root@centos _modules]# cat dl.py

def msg():

    msg='this is test message'

    return msg

def time():

    import time

    a=time.asctime()

return a

必须以.py结尾

然后同步到minion里(使用saltutil.sync_all)

[root@centos _modules]# salt '*' saltutil.sync_all

server.hadoop.com:

    |_

      - modules.dl

    |_

    |_

    |_

    |_

    |_

localhost:

    |_

      - modules.dl

    |_

    |_

    |_

    |_

    |_

下面测试

[root@centos _modules]# salt '*' dl.msg

localhost:

    this is test message

server.hadoop.com:

this is test message

[root@centos _modules]# salt '*' dl.time

server.hadoop.com:

    Tue Aug 13 15:25:32 2013

localhost:

Tue Aug 13 15:25:29 2013

当然还可以直接调用salt的模块

调用先有的module来显现自定义module中需要的功能saltsalt内置的一个字典,包含了所有的salt的moudle

def cmd(cmd):

    return __salt__['cmd.run'](cmd)

同步

之后测试

[root@centos _modules]#  salt '*' saltutil.sync_all

server.hadoop.com:

    |_

    |_

    |_

    |_

    |_

    |_

localhost:

    |_

      - modules.dl

    |_

    |_

    |_

    |_

    |_

[root@centos _modules]# salt 'localhost' dl.cmd ls

localhost:

    1.log

    1.py

    111.py

    1111.log

    2.log

    3.log

    anaconda-ks.cfg

    install.log

    install.log.syslog

    install_openstack.sh

    install_zabbix_agent.sh

    svn_install.sh

    test

    test5

    test7.py

    zatree

[root@centos _modules]# salt 'localhost' dl.cmd hostname

localhost:

    centos

下面是一些关于client的描述

Python client API

Salt is written to be completely API centric, Salt minions and master can be built directly into third party applications as a communication layer. The Salt client API is very straightforward.

运行单个命令

>>> import salt.client

>>> a=salt.client.LocalClient()

>>> a

>>> a.cmd("localhost","test.ping")

{'localhost': True}

>>> a.cmd("*","test.ping")

{'server.hadoop.com': True, 'localhost': True}

>>> a.cmd("*","dl.time")

{'server.hadoop.com': 'Wed Aug 14 09:53:22 2013', 'localhost': 'Wed Aug 14 09:53:22 2013'}

运行多个命令

>>> a.cmd('*',['cmd.run','test.ping','dl.time'],[['hostname'],[],[]])

{'server.hadoop.com': {'test.ping': True, 'dl.time': 'Wed Aug 14 10:01:35 2013', 'cmd.run': 'server.hadoop.com'}, 'localhost': {'test.ping': True, 'dl.time': 'Wed Aug 14 10:01:35 2013', 'cmd.run': 'centos'}}

具体参考

 

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