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(转)Linux下PS命令详解 2012-05-09 15:18:12

分类:

原文地址:(转)Linux下PS命令详解 作者:g_programming

LinuxPS命令详解

 

整理自:http://blog.chinaunix.net/space.php?uid=20564848&do=blog&id=74654

 

要对系统中进程进行监测控制,查看状态,内存,CPU的使用情况,使用命令:/bin/ps

(1)         ps :是显示瞬间进程的状态,并不动态连续;

(2)         top:如果想对进程运行时间监控,应该用 top 命令;

(3)         kill 用于杀死进程或者给进程发送信号;

(4)        查看文章最后的man手册,可以查看ps的每项输出的含义,to find: STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS

===================================ps 的参数说明=============================

l 长格式输出;

u 按用户名和启动时间的顺序来显示进程;

j 用任务格式来显示进程;

f 用树形格式来显示进程;

a 显示所有用户的所有进程(包括其它用户);

x 显示无控制终端的进程;

r 显示运行中的进程;

ww 避免详细参数被截断;


-A
列出所有的进程
-w
显示加宽可以显示较多的资讯
-au
显示较详细的资讯
-aux
显示所有包含其他使用者的进程

-e 显示所有进程,环境变量
-f
全格式
-h
不显示标题
-l
长格式
-w
宽输出
a  
显示终端上地所有进程,包括其他用户地进程
r  
只显示正在运行地进程
x  
显示没有控制终端地进程

我们常用的选项是组合是 aux lax,还有参数 f 的应用。
pids 只列出进程标识符,之间运用逗号分隔.该进程列表必须在命令行参数地最后一个选项后面紧接着给出,中间不能插入空格.比如:ps -f1,4,5 显示的是进程ID1,4,5的进程

下介绍长命令行选项,这些选项都运用“--”开头:
--sort X[+|-] key [,[+|-] key [,
]] SORT KEYS段中选一个多字母键.+”字符是可选地,因为默认地方向就是按数字升序或者词典顺序,“-”字符是逆序排序(即降序).

比如: ps -jax -sort=uid,-ppid,+pid.
--help
显示帮助信息.
--version
显示该命令地版本信息.

在前面地选项说明中提到了排序键,接下来对排序键作进一步说明.需要注意地是排序中运用地值是ps运用地内部值,并非仅用于某些输出格式地伪值.排序键列表见下表.

============排序键列表==========================
c cmd  
可执行地简单名称 
C cmdline  
完整命令行 
f flags  
长模式标志 
g pgrp  
进程地组ID 
G tpgid  
控制tty进程组ID 
j cutime  
累计用户时间 
J cstime  
累计系统时间 
k utime  
用户时间 
K stime  
系统时间 
m min_flt  
次要页错误地数量 
M maj_flt  
重点页错误地数量 
n cmin_flt
累计次要页错误 
N cmaj_flt
累计重点页错误 
o session  
对话ID 
p pid  
进程ID 
P ppid  
父进程ID 
r rss  
驻留大小 
R resident
驻留页 
s size  
内存大小(千字节) 
S share  
共享页地数量 
t tty   tty
次要设备号 
T start_time
进程启动地时间 
U uid   UID
u user  
用户名
v vsize  
总地虚拟内存数量(字节) 
y priority
内核调度优先级
========================================ps aux
lax 输出的解释=========================

2ps aux lax 输出的解释

au(x) 输出格式 : 
USER PID %CPU %MEM VSZ RSS TTY STAT START TIME COMMAND

USER:
进程所有者
PID:
进程ID

%CPU: 占用的 CPU 使用率
%MEM:
占用的内存使用率
VSZ:
占用的虚拟内存大小
RSS:
占用的内存大小

TTY: 终端的次要装置号码 (minor device number of tty)

STAT: 进程状态:

START: 启动进程的时间; 
TIME:
进程消耗CPU的时间;
COMMAND:
命令的名称和参数;

=========================================进程STAT状态==================================

D 无法中断的休眠状态(通常 IO 的进程); 
R
正在运行,在可中断队列中; 
S
处于休眠状态,静止状态; 
T
停止或被追踪,暂停执行; 
W
进入内存交换(从内核2.6开始无效); 
X
死掉的进程; 
Z
僵尸进程不存在但暂时无法消除;

W: 没有足够的记忆体分页可分配
WCHAN
正在等待的进程资源;

<: 高优先级进程
N:
低优先序进程
L:
有记忆体分页分配并锁在记忆体内 (即时系统或捱A I/O),即,有些页被锁进内存

s
进程的领导者(在它之下有子进程); 
l
多进程的(使用 CLONE_THREAD, 类似 NPTL pthreads); 
+
位于后台的进程组;

========================================kill 终止进程================================

kill 终止进程

有十几种控制进程的方法,下面是一些常用的方法:

kill -STOP [pid] 
发送SIGSTOP (17,19,23)停止一个进程,而并不消灭这个进程。

kill -CONT [pid] 
发送SIGCONT (19,18,25)重新开始一个停止的进程。

kill -KILL [pid] 
发送SIGKILL (9)强迫进程立即停止,并且不实施清理操作。

kill -9 -1 
终止你拥有的全部进程。

SIGKILL SIGSTOP 信号不能被捕捉、封锁或者忽略,但是,其它的信号可以。所以这是你的终极武器。

==================================================范例==============================

$ ps
PID TTY TIME COMMAND
5800 ttyp0 00:00:00 bash
5835 ttyp0 00:00:00 ps
可以看到,显示地项目共分为四项,依次为PID(进程ID)TTY(终端名称)TIME(进程执行时 间)COMMAND(该进程地命令行输入).

可以运用u选项来查看进程所有者及其他少许详细信息,如下所示:
$ ps u
USER PID %CPU %MEM USZ RSS TTY STAT START TIME COMMAND
test 5800 0.0 0.4 1892 1040 ttyp0 S Nov27 0:00 -bash
test 5836 0.0 0.3 2528 856 ttyp0 R Nov27 0:00 ps u

bash进程前面有条横线,意味着该进程便是用户地登录shell,所以对于一个登录用户来说带短横线地进程只有一个.还可以看 到%CPU%MEM两个选项,前者指该进程占用地CPU时间

和总时间地百分比;后者指该进程占用地内存和总内存地百分比.
在这种情况下看到了所有控制终端地进程;当然对于其他那些没有控制终端地进程 还是没有观察到,所以这时就需要运用x选项.运用x选项可以观察到所有地进程情况.

1)ps a 显示现行终端机下的所有程序,包括其他用户的程序。
2)ps -A
显示所有程序。
3)ps c
列出程序时,显示每个程序真正的指令名称,而不包含路径,参数或常驻服务的标示。
4)ps -e
此参数的效果和指定"A"参数相同。
5)ps e
列出程序时,显示每个程序所使用的环境变量。
6)ps f
ASCII字符显示树状结构,表达程序间的相互关系。
7)ps -H
显示树状结构,表示程序间的相互关系。
8)ps -N
显示所有的程序,除了执行ps指令终端机下的程序之外。
9)ps s
采用程序信号的格式显示程序状况。
10)ps S
列出程序时,包括已中断的子程序资料。
11)ps -t<
终端机编号>  指定终端机编号,并列出属于该终端机的程序的状况。
12)ps u
 以用户为主的格式来显示程序状况。
13)ps x
 显示所有程序,不以终端机来区分。

 最常用的方法是ps -aux,然后再用管道符号导向到grep去查找特定的进程,然后再对特定的进程进行操作。

==================================================

luther@gliethttp:~$ ps --help
********* simple selection *********  ********* selection by list *********
-A all processes                      -C by command name
-N negate selection                   -G by real group ID (supports names)
-a all w/ tty except session leaders  -U by real user ID (supports names)
-d all except session leaders         -g by session OR by effective group name
-e all processes                      -p by process ID
T  all processes on this terminal     -s processes in the sessions given
a  all w/ tty, including other users  -t by tty
g  OBSOLETE -- DO NOT USE             -u by effective user ID (supports names)
r  only running processes             U  processes for specified users
x  processes w/o controlling ttys     t  by tty
*********** output format **********  *********** long options ***********
-o,o user-defined  -f full            --Group --User --pid --cols --ppid
-j,j job control   s  signal          --group --user --sid --rows --info
-O,O preloaded -o  v  virtual memory  --cumulative --format --deselect
-l,l long          u  user-oriented   --sort --tty --forest --version
-F   extra full    X  registers       --heading --no-heading --context
                    ********* misc options *********
-V,V  show version      L  list format codes  f  ASCII art forest
-m,m,-L,-T,H  threads   S  children in sum    -y change -l format
-M,Z  security data     c  true command name  -c scheduling class
-w,w  wide output       n  numeric WCHAN,UID  -H process hierarchy
luther@gliethttp:~$ man ps

EXAMPLES
To see every process on the system using standard syntax:
   ps -e
   ps -ef
   ps -eF
   ps -ely

To see every process on the system using BSD syntax:
   ps ax
   ps axu

To print a process tree:
   ps -ejH
   ps axjf

To get info about threads:
   ps -eLf
   ps axms

To get security info:
   ps -eo euser,ruser,suser,fuser,f,comm,label
   ps axZ
   ps -eM

To see every process running as root (real & effective ID) in user
format:
   ps -U root -u root u

To see every process with a user-defined format:
   ps -eo pid,tid,class,rtprio,ni,pri,psr,pcpu,stat,wchan:14,comm
   ps axo stat,euid,ruid,tty,tpgid,sess,pgrp,ppid,pid,pcpu,comm
   ps -eopid,tt,user,fname,tmout,f,wchan

Print only the process IDs of syslogd:
   ps -C syslogd -o pid=

Print only the name of PID 42:
   ps -p 42 -o comm=

SIMPLE PROCESS SELECTION
-A   Select all processes. Identical to -e.


-N   Select all processes except those that fulfill the
     specified conditions. (negates the selection) Identical
     to --deselect.


T    Select all processes associated with this terminal.
     Identical to the t option without any argument.


-a   Select all processes except both session leaders (see
     getsid(2)) and processes not associated with a
     terminal.


a    Lift the BSD-style "only yourself" restriction, which
     is imposed upon the set of all processes when some
     BSD-style (without "-") options are used or when the ps
     personality setting is BSD-like. The set of processes
     selected in this manner is in addition to the set of
     processes selected by other means. An alternate
     description is that this option causes ps to list all
     processes with a terminal (tty), or to list all
     processes when used together with the x option.


-d   Select all processes except session leaders.


-e   Select all processes. Identical to -A.


g    Really all, even session leaders. This flag is obsolete
     and may be discontinued in a future release. It is
     normally implied by the a flag, and is only useful when
     operating in the sunos4 personality.


r    Restrict the selection to only running processes.


x    Lift the BSD-style "must have a tty" restriction, which
     is imposed upon the set of all processes when some
     BSD-style (without "-") options are used or when the ps
     personality setting is BSD-like. The set of processes
     selected in this manner is in addition to the set of
     processes selected by other means. An alternate
     description is that this option causes ps to list all
     processes owned by you (same EUID as ps), or to list
     all processes when used together with the a option.

PROCESS SELECTION BY LIST
These options accept a single argument in the form of a blank-separated
or comma-separated list. They can be used multiple times.
For example: ps -p "1 2" -p 3,4

-C cmdlist      Select by command name.
                This selects the processes whose executable name is
                given in cmdlist.


-G grplist      Select by real group ID (RGID) or name.
                This selects the processes whose real group name or ID
                is in the grplist list. The real group ID identifies
                the group of the user who created the process, see
                getgid(2).


U userlist      Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name.
                This selects the processes whose effective user name or
                ID is in userlist. The effective user ID describes the
                user whose file access permissions are used by the
                process (see geteuid(2)). Identical to -u and --user.


-U userlist     select by real user ID (RUID) or name.
                It selects the processes whose real user name or ID is
                in the userlist list. The real user ID identifies the
                user who created the process, see getuid(2).


-g grplist      Select by session OR by effective group name.
                Selection by session is specified by many standards,
                but selection by effective group is the logical
                behavior that several other operating systems use. This
                ps will select by session when the list is completely
                numeric (as sessions are). Group ID numbers will work
                only when some group names are also specified. See the
                -s and --group options.


p pidlist       Select by process ID. Identical to -p and --pid.


-p pidlist      Select by PID.
                This selects the processes whose process ID numbers
                appear in pidlist. Identical to p and --pid.


-s sesslist     Select by session ID.
                This selects the processes with a session ID specified
                in sesslist.


t ttylist       Select by tty. Nearly identical to -t and --tty, but
                can also be used with an empty ttylist to indicate the
                terminal associated with ps. Using the T option is
                considered cleaner than using T with an empty ttylist.


-t ttylist      Select by tty.
                This selects the processes associated with the
                terminals given in ttylist. Terminals (ttys, or screens
                for text output) can be specified in several forms:
                /dev/ttyS1, ttyS1, S1. A plain "-" may be used to
                select processes not attached to any terminal.


-u userlist     Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name.
                This selects the processes whose effective user name or
                ID is in userlist. The effective user ID describes the
                user whose file access permissions are used by the
                process (see geteuid(2)). Identical to U and --user.


--Group grplist Select by real group ID (RGID) or name. Identical to
                -G.


--User userlist Select by real user ID (RUID) or name. Identical to -U.


--group grplist Select by effective group ID (EGID) or name.
                This selects the processes whose effective group name
                or ID is in grouplist. The effective group ID describes
                the group whose file access permissions are used by the
                process (see geteuid(2)). The -g option is often an
                alternative to --group.


--pid pidlist   Select by process ID. Identical to -p and p.


--ppid pidlist  Select by parent process ID. This selects the processes
                with a parent process ID in pidlist. That is, it
                selects processes that are children of those listed in
                pidlist.


--sid sesslist  Select by session ID. Identical to -s.


--tty ttylist   Select by terminal. Identical to -t and t.


--user userlist Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name. Identical
                to -u and U.


-123            Identical to --sid 123.


123             Identical to --pid 123.


OUTPUT FORMAT CONTROL
These options are used to choose the information displayed by ps. The
output may differ by personality.

-F              extra full format. See the -f option, which -F implies.


-O format       is like -o, but preloaded with some default columns.
                Identical to -o pid,format,state,tname,time,command or
                -o pid,format,tname,time,cmd, see -o below.


O format        is preloaded o (overloaded).
                The BSD O option can act like -O (user-defined output
                format with some common fields predefined) or can be
                used to specify sort order. Heuristics are used to
                determine the behavior of this option. To ensure that
                the desired behavior is obtained (sorting or
                formatting), specify the option in some other way (e.g.
                with -O or --sort). When used as a formatting option,
                it is identical to -O, with the BSD personality.


-M              Add a column of security data. Identical to Z.
                (for SE Linux)


X               Register format.


Z               Add a column of security data. Identical to -M.
                (for SE Linux)


-c              Show different scheduler information for the -l option.


-f              does full-format listing. This option can be combined
                with many other UNIX-style options to add additional
                columns. It also causes the command arguments to be
                printed. When used with -L, the NLWP (number of
                threads) and LWP (thread ID) columns will be added. See
                the c option, the format keyword args, and the format
                keyword comm.


j               BSD job control format.


-j              jobs format


l               display BSD long format.


-l              long format. The -y option is often useful with this.


o format        specify user-defined format. Identical to -o and
                --format.


-o format       user-defined format.
                format is a single argument in the form of a
                blank-separated or comma-separated list, which offers a
                way to specify individual output columns. The
                recognized keywords are described in the STANDARD
                FORMAT SPECIFIERS section below. Headers may be renamed
                (ps -o pid,ruser=RealUser -o comm=Command) as desired.
                If all column headers are empty (ps -o pid= -o comm=)
                then the header line will not be output. Column width
                will increase as needed for wide headers; this may be
                used to widen up columns such as WCHAN
                (ps -o pid,wchan=WIDE-WCHAN-COLUMN -o comm). Explicit
                width control (ps opid,wchan:42,cmd) is offered too.
                The behavior of ps -o pid=X,comm=Y varies with
                personality; output may be one column named "X,comm=Y"
                or two columns named "X" and "Y". Use multiple -o
                options when in doubt. Use the PS_FORMAT environment
                variable to specify a default as desired; DefSysV and
                DefBSD are macros that may be used to choose the
                default UNIX or BSD columns.


s               display signal format


u               display user-oriented format


v               display virtual memory format


-y              Do not show flags; show rss in place of addr. This
                option can only be used with -l.


--format format user-defined format. Identical to -o and o.


--context       Display security context format. (for SE Linux)


OUTPUT MODIFIERS
-H              show process hierarchy (forest)


N namelist      Specify namelist file. Identical to -n, see -n above.


O order         Sorting order. (overloaded)
                The BSD O option can act like -O (user-defined output
                format with some common fields predefined) or can be
                used to specify sort order. Heuristics are used to
                determine the behavior of this option. To ensure that
                the desired behavior is obtained (sorting or
                formatting), specify the option in some other way (e.g.
                with -O or --sort).

                For sorting, obsolete BSD O option syntax is
                O[+|-]k1[,[+|-]k2[,...]]. It orders the processes
                listing according to the multilevel sort specified by
                the sequence of one-letter short keys k1, k2, ...
                described in the OBSOLETE SORT KEYS section below.
                The "+" is currently optional, merely re-iterating the
                default direction on a key, but may help to distinguish
                an O sort from an O format. The "-" reverses direction
                only on the key it precedes.


S               Sum up some information, such as CPU usage, from dead
                child processes into their parent. This is useful for
                examining a system where a parent process repeatedly
                forks off short-lived children to do work.


c               Show the true command name. This is derived from the
                name of the executable file, rather than from the argv
                value. Command arguments and any modifications to them
                are thus not shown. This option effectively turns the
                args format keyword into the comm format keyword; it is
                useful with the -f format option and with the various
                BSD-style format options, which all normally display
                the command arguments. See the -f option, the format
                keyword args, and the format keyword comm.


e               Show the environment after the command.


f               ASCII-art process hierarchy (forest)


h               No header. (or, one header per screen in the BSD
                personality)
                The h option is problematic. Standard BSD ps uses this
                option to print a header on each page of output, but
                older Linux ps uses this option to totally disable the
                header. This version of ps follows the Linux usage of
                not printing the header unless the BSD personality has
                been selected, in which case it prints a header on each
                page of output. Regardless of the current personality,
                you can use the long options --headers and --no-headers
                to enable printing headers each page or disable headers
                entirely, respectively.


k spec          specify sorting order. Sorting syntax is
                [+|-]key[,[+|-]key[,...]] Choose a multi-letter key
                from the STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section. The "+" is
                optional since default direction is increasing
                numerical or lexicographic order. Identical to --sort.
                Examples:
                ps jaxkuid,-ppid,+pid
                ps axk comm o comm,args
                ps kstart_time -ef


-n namelist     set namelist file. Identical to N.
                The namelist file is needed for a proper WCHAN display,
                and must match the current Linux kernel exactly for
                correct output. Without this option, the default search
                path for the namelist is:

                     $PS_SYSMAP
                     $PS_SYSTEM_MAP
                     /proc/*/wchan
                     /boot/System.map-`uname -r`
                     /boot/System.map
                     /lib/modules/`uname -r`/System.map
                     /usr/src/linux/System.map
                     /System.map


n               Numeric output for WCHAN and USER. (including all types
                of UID and GID)


-w              Wide output. Use this option twice for unlimited width.


w               Wide output. Use this option twice for unlimited width.


--cols n        set screen width


--columns n     set screen width


--cumulative    include some dead child process data (as a sum with the
                parent)


--forest        ASCII art process tree


--headers       repeat header lines, one per page of output


--no-headers    print no header line at all. --no-heading is an alias
                for this option.


--lines n       set screen height


--rows n        set screen height


--sort spec     specify sorting order. Sorting syntax is
                [+|-]key[,[+|-]key[,...]] Choose a multi-letter key
                from the STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section. The "+" is
                optional since default direction is increasing
                numerical or lexicographic order. Identical to k. For
                example: ps jax --sort=uid,-ppid,+pid


--width n       set screen width


THREAD DISPLAY
       H               Show threads as if they were processes

       -L              Show threads, possibly with LWP and NLWP columns

       -T              Show threads, possibly with SPID column

       m               Show threads after processes

       -m              Show threads after processes


OTHER INFORMATION
       L               List all format specifiers.

       -V              Print the procps version.

       V               Print the procps version.

       --help          Print a help message.

       --info          Print debugging info.

       --version       Print the procps version.


NOTES
       This ps works by reading the virtual files in /proc. This ps does not
       need to be setuid kmem or have any privileges to run. Do not give this
       ps any special permissions.

       This ps needs access to namelist data for proper WCHAN display. For
       kernels prior to 2.6, the System.map file must be installed.

       CPU usage is currently expressed as the percentage of time spent
       running during the entire lifetime of a process. This is not ideal,
       and it does not conform to the standards that ps otherwise conforms to.
       CPU usage is unlikely to add up to exactly 100%.

       The SIZE and RSS fields don't count some parts of a process including
       the page tables, kernel stack, struct thread_info, and struct
       task_struct. This is usually at least 20 KiB of memory that is always
       resident. SIZE is the virtual size of the process (code+data+stack).

       Processes marked <defunct> are dead processes (so-called "zombies")
       that remain because their parent has not destroyed them properly. These
       processes will be destroyed by init(8) if the parent process exits.



PROCESS FLAGS
       The sum of these values is displayed in the "F" column, which is
       provided by the flags output specifier.
       1    forked but didn't exec
       4    used super-user privileges

PROCESS STATE CODES
       Here are the different values that the s, stat and state output
       specifiers (header "STAT" or "S") will display to describe the state of
       a process.
       D    Uninterruptible sleep (usually IO)
       R    Running or runnable (on run queue)
       S    Interruptible sleep (waiting for an event to complete)
       T    Stopped, either by a job control signal or because it is being
            traced.
       W    paging (not valid since the 2.6.xx kernel)
       X    dead (should never be seen)
       Z    Defunct ("zombie") process, terminated but not reaped by its
            parent.

       For BSD formats and when the stat keyword is used, additional
       characters may be displayed:
       <    high-priority (not nice to other users)
       N    low-priority (nice to other users)
       L    has pages locked into memory (for real-time and custom IO)
       s    is a session leader
       l    is multi-threaded (using CLONE_THREAD, like NPTL pthreads do)
       +    is in the foreground process group

OBSOLETE SORT KEYS
       These keys are used by the BSD O option (when it is used for sorting).
       The GNU --sort option doesn't use these keys, but the specifiers
       described below in the STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section. Note that
       the values used in sorting are the internal values ps uses and not the
       "cooked" values used in some of the output format fields (e.g. sorting
       on tty will sort into device number, not according to the terminal name
       displayed). Pipe ps output into the sort(1) command if you want to sort
       the cooked values.


       KEY   LONG         DESCRIPTION
       c     cmd          simple name of executable
       C     pcpu         cpu utilization
       f     flags        flags as in long format F field
       g     pgrp         process group ID
       G     tpgid        controlling tty process group ID
       j     cutime       cumulative user time
       J     cstime       cumulative system time

       k     utime        user time
       m     min_flt      number of minor page faults
       M     maj_flt      number of major page faults
       n     cmin_flt     cumulative minor page faults
       N     cmaj_flt     cumulative major page faults
       o     session      session ID
       p     pid          process ID
       P     ppid         parent process ID
       r     rss          resident set size
       R     resident     resident pages
       s     size         memory size in kilobytes
       S     share        amount of shared pages
       t     tty          the device number of the controlling tty
       T     start_time   time process was started
       U     uid          user ID number
       u     user         user name
       v     vsize        total VM size in kB
       y     priority     kernel scheduling priority

AIX FORMAT DESCRIPTORS
       This ps supports AIX format descriptors, which work somewhat like the
       formatting codes of printf(1) and printf(3). For example, the normal
       default output can be produced with this:  ps -eo "%p %y %x %c".
       The NORMAL codes are described in the next section.

       CODE   NORMAL   HEADER
       %C     pcpu     %CPU
       %G     group    GROUP
       %P     ppid     PPID
       %U     user     USER
       %a     args     COMMAND
       %c     comm     COMMAND
       %g     rgroup   RGROUP
       %n     nice     NI
       %p     pid      PID
       %r     pgid     PGID
       %t     etime    ELAPSED
       %u     ruser    RUSER
       %x     time     TIME
       %y     tty      TTY
       %z     vsz      VSZ


STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS
       Here are the different keywords that may be used to control the output
       format (e.g. with option -o) or to sort the selected processes with the
       GNU-style --sort option.

       For example:  ps -eo pid,user,args --sort user

       This version of ps tries to recognize most of the keywords used in
       other implementations of ps.

       The following user-defined format specifiers may contain spaces: args,
       cmd, comm, command, fname, ucmd, ucomm, lstart, bsdstart, start.

       Some keywords may not be available for sorting.


       CODE      HEADER DESCRIPTION

       %cpu      %CPU   cpu utilization of the process in "##.#" format.
                        Currently, it is the CPU time used divided by the time the
                        process has been running (cputime/realtime ratio),
                        expressed as a percentage. It will not add up to 100%
                        unless you are lucky. (alias pcpu).




       %mem      %MEM   ratio of the process's resident set size  to the physical
                        memory on the machine, expressed as a percentage.
                        (alias pmem).

       args      COMMANDcommand with all its arguments as a string. Modifications
                        to the arguments may be shown. The output in this column
                        may contain spaces. A process marked <defunct> is partly
                        dead, waiting to be fully destroyed by its parent.
                        Sometimes the process args will be unavailable; when this
                        happens, ps will instead print the executable name in
                        brackets. (alias cmd, command). See also the comm format
                        keyword, the -f option, and the c option.
                        When specified last, this column will extend to the edge
                        of the display. If ps can not determine display width, as
                        when output is redirected (piped) into a file or another
                        command, the output width is undefined. (it may be 80,
                        unlimited, determined by the TERM variable, and so on) The
                        COLUMNS environment variable or --cols option may be used
                        to exactly determine the width in this case. The w or -w
                        option may be also be used to adjust width.

       blocked   BLOCKEDmask of the blocked signals, see signal(7). According to
                        the width of the field, a 32-bit or 64-bit mask in
                        hexadecimal format is displayed.
                        (alias sig_block, sigmask).

       bsdstart  START  time the command started. If the process was started less
                        than 24 hours ago, the output format is " HH:MM", else it
                        is "mmm dd" (where mmm is the three letters of the month).
                        See also lstart, start, start_time, and stime.

       bsdtime   TIME   accumulated cpu time, user + system. The display format is
                        usually "MMM:SS", but can be shifted to the right if the
                        process used more than 999 minutes of cpu time.

       c         C      processor utilization. Currently, this is the integer
                        value of the percent usage over the lifetime of the
                        process. (see %cpu).

       caught    CAUGHT mask of the caught signals, see signal(7). According to
                        the width of the field, a 32 or 64 bits mask in
                        hexadecimal format is displayed.
                        (alias sig_catch, sigcatch).

       class     CLS    scheduling class of the process. (alias policy, cls).
                        Field's possible values are:
                        -   not reported
                        TS  SCHED_OTHER
                        FF  SCHED_FIFO
                        RR  SCHED_RR
                        B   SCHED_BATCH
                        ISO SCHED_ISO
                        IDL SCHED_IDLE
                        ?   unknown value

       cls       CLS    scheduling class of the process. (alias policy, class).
                        Field's possible values are:
                        -   not reported
                        TS  SCHED_OTHER
                        FF  SCHED_FIFO
                        RR  SCHED_RR
                        B   SCHED_BATCH
                        ISO SCHED_ISO
                        IDL SCHED_IDLE
                        ?   unknown value

       cmd       CMD    see args. (alias args, command).



       comm      COMMANDcommand name (only the executable name). Modifications to
                        the command name will not be shown. A process marked
                        <defunct> is partly dead, waiting to be fully destroyed by
                        its parent. The output in this column may contain spaces.
                        (alias ucmd, ucomm). See also the args format keyword, the
                        -f option, and the c option.
                        When specified last, this column will extend to the edge
                        of the display. If ps can not determine display width, as
                        when output is redirected (piped) into a file or another
                        command, the output width is undefined. (it may be 80,
                        unlimited, determined by the TERM variable, and so on) The
                        COLUMNS environment variable or --cols option may be used
                        to exactly determine the width in this case. The w or -w
                        option may be also be used to adjust width.

       command   COMMANDsee args. (alias args, cmd).

       cp        CP     per-mill (tenths of a percent) CPU usage. (see %cpu).

       cputime   TIME   cumulative CPU time, "[dd-]hh:mm:ss" format. (alias time).

       egid      EGID   effective group ID number of the process as a decimal
                        integer. (alias gid).

       egroup    EGROUP effective group ID of the process. This will be the
                        textual group ID, if it can be obtained and the field
                        width permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.
                        (alias group).

       eip       EIP    instruction pointer.

       esp       ESP    stack pointer.

       etime     ELAPSEDelapsed time since the process was started, in the
                        form [[dd-]hh:]mm:ss.

       euid      EUID   effective user ID. (alias uid).

       euser     EUSER  effective user name. This will be the textual user ID,
                        if it can be obtained and the field width permits,
                        or a decimal representation otherwise. The n option can be
                        used to force the decimal representation.
                        (alias uname, user).

       f         F      flags associated with the process, see the PROCESS FLAGS
                        section. (alias flag, flags).

       fgid      FGID   filesystem access group ID. (alias fsgid).

       fgroup    FGROUP filesystem access group ID. This will be the textual
                        user ID, if it can be obtained and the field width
                        permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.
                        (alias fsgroup).

       flag      F      see f. (alias f, flags).

       flags     F      see f. (alias f, flag).

       fname     COMMANDfirst 8 bytes of the base name of the process's executable
                        file. The output in this column may contain spaces.

       fuid      FUID   filesystem access user ID. (alias fsuid).

       fuser     FUSER  filesystem access user ID. This will be the textual
                        user ID, if it can be obtained and the field width
                        permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.

       gid       GID    see egid. (alias egid).


       group     GROUP  see egroup. (alias egroup).

       ignored   IGNOREDmask of the ignored signals, see signal(7). According to
                        the width of the field, a 32-bit or 64-bit mask in
                        hexadecimal format is displayed. (alias sig_ignore,
                        sigignore).

       label     LABEL  security label, most commonly used for SE Linux context
                        data. This is for the Mandatory Access Control ("MAC")
                        found on high-security systems.

       lstart    STARTEDtime the command started. See also bsdstart, start,
                        start_time, and stime.

       lwp       LWP    lwp (light weight process, or thread) ID of the lwp being
                        reported. (alias spid, tid).

       ni        NI     nice value. This ranges from 19 (nicest) to -20 (not nice
                        to others), see nice(1). (alias nice).

       nice      NI     see ni. (alias ni).

       nlwp      NLWP   number of lwps (threads) in the process. (alias thcount).

       nwchan    WCHAN  address of the kernel function where the process is
                        sleeping (use wchan if you want the kernel function name).
                        Running tasks will display a dash ('-') in this column.

       pcpu      %CPU   see %cpu. (alias %cpu).

       pending   PENDINGmask of the pending signals. See signal(7). Signals
                        pending on the process are distinct from signals pending
                        on individual threads. Use the m option or the -m option
                        to see both. According to the width of the field, a 32-bit
                        or 64-bit mask in hexadecimal format is displayed.
                        (alias sig).

       pgid      PGID   process group ID or, equivalently, the process ID of the
                        process group leader. (alias pgrp).

       pgrp      PGRP   see pgid. (alias pgid).

       pid       PID    process ID number of the process.

       pmem      %MEM   see %mem. (alias %mem).

       policy    POL    scheduling class of the process. (alias class, cls).
                        Possible values are:
                        -   not reported
                        TS  SCHED_OTHER
                        FF  SCHED_FIFO
                        RR  SCHED_RR
                        B   SCHED_BATCH
                        ISO SCHED_ISO
                        IDL SCHED_IDLE
                        ?   unknown value

       ppid      PPID   parent process ID.

       pri       PRI    priority of the process. Higher number means lower
                        priority

       psr       PSR    processor that process is currently assigned to.

       rgid      RGID   real group ID.

       rgroup    RGROUP real group name. This will be the textual group ID, if it
                        can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
                        representation otherwise.


       rss       RSS    resident set size, the non-swapped physical memory that a
                        task has used (in kiloBytes). (alias rssize, rsz).

       rssize    RSS    see rss. (alias rss, rsz).

       rsz       RSZ    see rss. (alias rss, rssize).

       rtprio    RTPRIO realtime priority.

       ruid      RUID   real user ID.

       ruser     RUSER  real user ID. This will be the textual user ID, if it can
                        be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
                        representation otherwise.

       s         S      minimal state display (one character). See section PROCESS
                        STATE CODES for the different values. See also stat if you
                        want additional information displayed. (alias state).

       sched     SCH    scheduling policy of the process. The policies SCHED_OTHER
                        (SCHED_NORMAL), SCHED_FIFO, SCHED_RR, SCHED_BATCH,
                        SCHED_ISO, and SCHED_IDLE are respectively displayed as
                        0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

       sess      SESS   session ID or, equivalently, the process ID of the
                        session leader. (alias session, sid).

       sgi_p     P      processor that the process is currently executing on.
                        Displays "*" if the process is not currently running or
                        runnable.

       sgid      SGID   saved group ID. (alias svgid).

       sgroup    SGROUP saved group name. This will be the textual group ID, if it
                        can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
                        representation otherwise.

       sid       SID    see sess. (alias sess, session).

       sig       PENDINGsee pending. (alias pending, sig_pend).

       sigcatch  CAUGHT see caught. (alias caught, sig_catch).

       sigignore IGNOREDsee ignored. (alias ignored, sig_ignore).

       sigmask   BLOCKEDsee blocked. (alias blocked, sig_block).

       size      SZ     approximate amount of swap space that would be required if
                        the process were to dirty all writable pages and then be
                        swapped out. This number is very rough!

       spid      SPID   see lwp. (alias lwp, tid).

       stackp    STACKP address of the bottom (start) of stack for the process.

       start     STARTEDtime the command started. If the process was started less
                        than 24 hours ago, the output format is "HH:MM:SS", else
                        it is "  mmm dd" (where mmm is a three-letter month name).
                        See also lstart, bsdstart, start_time, and stime.

       start_timeSTART  starting time or date of the process. Only the year will
                        be displayed if the process was not started the same year
                        ps was invoked, or "mmmdd" if it was not started the same
                        day, or "HH:MM" otherwise. See also bsdstart, start,
                        lstart, and stime.




       stat      STAT   multi-character process state. See section PROCESS STATE
                        CODES for the different values meaning. See also s and
                        state if you just want the first character displayed.

       state     S      see s. (alias s).

       suid      SUID   saved user ID. (alias svuid).

       suser     SUSER  saved user name. This will be the textual user ID, if it
                        can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
                        representation otherwise. (alias svuser).

       svgid     SVGID  see sgid. (alias sgid).

       svuid     SVUID  see suid. (alias suid).

       sz        SZ     size in physical pages of the core image of the process.
                        This includes text, data, and stack space. Device mappings
                        are currently excluded; this is subject to change. See vsz
                        and rss.

       thcount   THCNT  see nlwp. (alias nlwp). number of kernel threads owned by
                        the process.

       tid       TID    see lwp. (alias lwp).

       time      TIME   cumulative CPU time, "[dd-]hh:mm:ss" format.
                        (alias cputime).

       tname     TTY    controlling tty (terminal). (alias tt, tty).

       tpgid     TPGID  ID of the foreground process group on the tty (terminal)
                        that the process is connected to, or -1 if the process is
                        not connected to a tty.

       tt        TT     controlling tty (terminal). (alias tname, tty).

       tty       TT     controlling tty (terminal). (alias tname, tt).

       ucmd      CMD    see comm. (alias comm, ucomm).

       ucomm     COMMANDsee comm. (alias comm, ucmd).

       uid       UID    see euid. (alias euid).

       uname     USER   see euser. (alias euser, user).

       user      USER   see euser. (alias euser, uname).

       vsize     VSZ    see vsz. (alias vsz).

       vsz       VSZ    virtual memory size of the process in KiB
                        (1024-byte units). Device mappings are currently excluded;
                        this is subject to change. (alias vsize).

       wchan     WCHAN  name of the kernel function in which the process is
                        sleeping, a "-" if the process is running, or a "*" if the
                        process is multi-threaded and ps is not displaying
                        threads.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables could affect ps:

       COLUMNS
          Override default display width.

       LINES
          Override default display height.

       PS_PERSONALITY
          Set to one of posix, old, linux, bsd, sun, digital...
          (see section PERSONALITY below).

       CMD_ENV
          Set to one of posix, old, linux, bsd, sun, digital...
          (see section PERSONALITY below).

       I_WANT_A_BROKEN_PS
          Force obsolete command line interpretation.

       LC_TIME
          Date format.

       PS_COLORS
          Not currently supported.

       PS_FORMAT
          Default output format override. You may set this to a format string
          of the type used for the -o option. The DefSysV and DefBSD values
          are particularly useful.

       PS_SYSMAP
          Default namelist (System.map) location.

       PS_SYSTEM_MAP
          Default namelist (System.map) location.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
          Don't find excuses to ignore bad "features".

       POSIX2
          When set to "on", acts as POSIXLY_CORRECT.

       UNIX95
          Don't find excuses to ignore bad "features".

       _XPG
          Cancel CMD_ENV=irix non-standard behavior.

       In general, it is a bad idea to set these variables. The one exception
       is CMD_ENV or PS_PERSONALITY, which could be set to Linux for normal
       systems. Without that setting, ps follows the useless and bad parts of
       the Unix98 standard.

PERSONALITY
       390        like the S/390 OpenEdition ps
       aix        like AIX ps
       bsd        like FreeBSD ps (totally non-standard)
       compaq     like Digital Unix ps
       debian     like the old Debian ps
       digital    like Tru64 (was Digital Unix, was OSF/1) ps
       gnu        like the old Debian ps
       hp         like HP-UX ps
       hpux       like HP-UX ps
       irix       like Irix ps
       linux      ***** RECOMMENDED *****
       old        like the original Linux ps (totally non-standard)
       os390      like OS/390 Open Edition ps
       posix      standard
       s390       like OS/390 Open Edition ps
       sco        like SCO ps
       sgi        like Irix ps
       solaris2   like Solaris 2+ (SunOS 5) ps
       sunos4     like SunOS 4 (Solaris 1) ps (totally non-standard)
       svr4       standard
       sysv       standard
       tru64      like Tru64 (was Digital Unix, was OSF/1) ps
       unix       standard
       unix95     standard
       unix98     standard

SEE ALSO
       top(1), pgrep(1), pstree(1), proc(5).

STANDARDS
       This ps conforms to:

       1   Version 2 of the Single Unix Specification
       2   The Open Group Technical Standard Base Specifications, Issue 6
       3   IEEE Std 1003.1, 2004 Edition
       4   X/Open System Interfaces Extension [UP XSI]
       5   ISO/IEC 9945:2003

AUTHOR
       ps was originally written by Branko Lankester <lankeste@fwi.uva.nl>.
       Michael K. Johnson <johnsonm@redhat.com> re-wrote it significantly to
       use the proc filesystem, changing a few things in the process. Michael
       Shields <mjshield@nyx.cs.du.edu> added the pid-list feature. Charles
       Blake <cblake@bbn.com> added multi-level sorting, the dirent-style
       library, the device name-to-number mmaped database, the approximate
       binary search directly on System.map, and many code and documentation
       cleanups. David Mossberger-Tang wrote the generic BFD support for
       psupdate. Albert Cahalan <albert@users.sf.net> rewrote ps for full
       Unix98 and BSD support, along with some ugly hacks for obsolete and
       foreign syntax.

       Please send bug reports to <procps-feedback@lists.sf.net>.
       No subscription is required or suggested.



Linux                            July 28, 2004                           PS(1)

 

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