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分类: LINUX

2013-04-19 15:01:35

原文地址:linux console驱动详解 作者:wangbaolin719

console驱动:
一、基本概念
终端是一种字符型设备,通常使用tty简称各种类型的终端。linux的终端类型:
/dev/ttySn,串行口终端

/dev/pty,伪终端

/dev/tty,当前进程的控制终端,可以是介绍的其它任何一种终端

/dev/ttyn,tty1~tty6是虚拟终端,tty0当前虚拟终端的别名。

/dev/console,控制台终端(显示器)

二、uboot传参数的处理
linux启动时uboot传递进console=ttyS2,115200n8的参数
内核中用__setup()宏声明参数处理的方法:__setup("console=", console_setup);  
1.console_cmdline结构体
struct console_cmdline  
{  
    char name[8];    //驱动名   
    int  index;      //次设备号   
    char *options;   //选项   
#ifdef CONFIG_A11Y_BRAILLE_CONSOLE   
    char    *brl_options;     
#endif   
};  

2.内核调用console_setup()函数处理uboot传进的console参数
static int __init console_setup(char *str)  
{  
    char buf[sizeof(console_cmdline[0].name) + 4]; //分配驱动名+index的缓冲区,分配12个字节  
    char *s, *options, *brl_options = NULL;  
    int idx;  
  
#ifdef CONFIG_A11Y_BRAILLE_CONSOLE   
    if (!memcmp(str, "brl,", 4)) {  
        brl_options = "";  
        str += 4;  
    } else if (!memcmp(str, "brl=", 4)) {  
        brl_options = str + 4;  
        str = strchr(brl_options, ',');  
        if (!str) {  
            printk(KERN_ERR "need port name after brl=\n");  
            return 1;  
        }  
        *(str++) = 0;  
    }  
#endif   

    if (str[0] >= '0' && str[0] <= '9') { //第一个参数属于[0,9]   
        strcpy(buf, "ttyS");    //则将其驱动名设为ttyS   
        strncpy(buf + 4, str, sizeof(buf) - 5);//将次设备号放其后面   
    } else {  
        strncpy(buf, str, sizeof(buf) - 1); //否则直接将驱动名+设备号拷贝到buf中
    }  
    buf[sizeof(buf) - 1] = 0;  
    if ((options = strchr(str, ',')) != NULL) //获取options,即“115200n8”   
        *(options++) = 0;  
        
#ifdef __sparc__   
    if (!strcmp(str, "ttya"))  
        strcpy(buf, "ttyS0");  
    if (!strcmp(str, "ttyb"))  
        strcpy(buf, "ttyS1");  
#endif  
 
    for (s = buf; *s; s++)  
        if ((*s >= '0' && *s <= '9') || *s == ',')//移动指针s到次设备号处  
            break;  
    idx = simple_strtoul(s, NULL, 10); //获取次设备号,字符串转换成unsigend long long型数据,s表示字符串的开始,NULL表示字符串的结束,10表示进制 
    																	//这里返回的是次设备号=2
    *s = 0;  
  
    __add_preferred_console(buf, idx, options, brl_options);  
    console_set_on_cmdline = 1;  
    return 1;  
}  

3.__add_preferred_console()函数
//整体的作用是根据uboot传递的参数设置全局console_cmdline数组
//该数组及全局selected_console,在register_console中会使用到
static int __add_preferred_console(char *name, int idx, char *options,char *brl_options)  
{  
    struct console_cmdline *c;  
    int i;  
    for (i = 0; i < MAX_CMDLINECONSOLES && console_cmdline[i].name[0]; i++)//可以最多8个console   
        if (strcmp(console_cmdline[i].name, name) == 0 && console_cmdline[i].index == idx) {  
            //比较已注册的console_cmdline数组中的项的名字及次设备号,若console_cmdline已经存在   
                if (!brl_options)  
                    selected_console = i;//设置全局selected_console索引号   
                return 0;//则返回   
        }  
     
    if (i == MAX_CMDLINECONSOLES)//判断console_cmdline数组是否满了   
        return -E2BIG;  
    if (!brl_options)  
        selected_console = i; //设置全局selected_console索引号   
    
    c = &console_cmdline[i];//获取全局console_cmdline数组的第i项地址   
    strlcpy(c->name, name, sizeof(c->name));  //填充全局console_cmdline的驱动名“ttyS2”   
    c->options = options;    //填充配置选项115200n8   
#ifdef CONFIG_A11Y_BRAILLE_CONSOLE   
    c->brl_options = brl_options;  
#endif   
    c->index = idx;  //填充索引号2,即次设备号   
    return 0;  
}  

三、在console初始化之前能使用printk,使用内核提供的early printk支持。
//在调用console_init之前调用printk也能打印出信息,这是為什麼呢?在start_kernel函数中很早就调用了 parse_early_param函数,
//该函数会调用到链接脚本中.init.setup段的函数。其中就有 setup_early_serial8250_console函数。
//该函数通过 register_console(&early_serial8250_console);
//注册了一个比较简单的串口设备。可以用来打印内核启 动早期的信息。

//对于early printk的console注册往往通过内核的early_param完成。
early_param(“earlycon”,setup_early_serial8250_console);
//定义一个earlycon的内核参数,内核解析这个参数时调用setup_early_serial8250_console()函数

1.setup_early_serial8250_console()函数
//earlycon = uart8250,mmio,0xff5e0000,115200n8
int __init setup_early_serial8250_console(char *cmdline)
{
	char *options;
	int err;

	options = strstr(cmdline, "uart8250,");//找到“uart8250,”字符串,返回此字符串的起始位置
	if (!options) {
		options = strstr(cmdline, "uart,");
		if (!options)
			return 0;
	}

	options = strchr(cmdline, ',') + 1;//options指针指向第一个逗号后边的字符串地址
	err = early_serial8250_setup(options);//进行配置
	if (err < 0)
		return err;
	
	/*
	static struct console early_serial8250_console __initdata = {
		.name	= "uart",
		.write	= early_serial8250_write,
		.flags	= CON_PRINTBUFFER | CON_BOOT,//所用具有CON_BOOT属性的console都会在内核初始化到late initcall阶段被注销,相互消他们的函数是
		.index	= -1,
	};
	*/
	//注册一个早期的console,到真正的console_init时,此console会被注销,因为设置了CON_BOOT标志
	register_console(&early_serial8250_console);

	return 0;
}

static int __init early_serial8250_setup(char *options)
{
	struct early_serial8250_device *device = &early_device;
	int err;

	if (device->port.membase || device->port.iobase)//early_device设备的端口地址若配置过则返回
		return 0;

	err = parse_options(device, options);//解析参数并配置early_device设备对应的uart_port结构
	if (err < 0)
		return err;

	init_port(device);//early_device设备对应的初始化uart_port结构
	return 0;
}

static int __init parse_options(struct early_serial8250_device *device,char *options)
{
	struct uart_port *port = &device->port;//找到early_device设备对应的uart_port结构
	int mmio, mmio32, length;

	if (!options)
		return -ENODEV;

	port->uartclk = BASE_BAUD * 16;//串口时钟

	mmio = !strncmp(options, "mmio,", 5);//查找"mmio,"字符串,找到mmio=1
	mmio32 = !strncmp(options, "mmio32,", 7);//mmio32=0
	if (mmio || mmio32) {
		port->iotype = (mmio ? UPIO_MEM : UPIO_MEM32);//串口类型设为UPIO_MEM=2
		port->mapbase = simple_strtoul(options + (mmio ? 5 : 7),&options, 0);//获得串口的配置寄存器基础地址(物理地址),这里是得到0xff5e0000
		if (mmio32)
			port->regshift = 2;
#ifdef CONFIG_FIX_EARLYCON_MEM
		set_fixmap_nocache(FIX_EARLYCON_MEM_BASE,port->mapbase & PAGE_MASK);
		port->membase =(void __iomem *)__fix_to_virt(FIX_EARLYCON_MEM_BASE);
		port->membase += port->mapbase & ~PAGE_MASK;
#else
		port->membase = ioremap_nocache(port->mapbase, 64);//映射到内存的配置寄存器基础地址
		if (!port->membase) {
			printk(KERN_ERR "%s: Couldn't ioremap 0x%llx\n",	__func__,(unsigned long long) port->mapbase);
			return -ENOMEM;
		}
#endif
	} else if (!strncmp(options, "io,", 3)) {
		port->iotype = UPIO_PORT;
		port->iobase = simple_strtoul(options + 3, &options, 0);
		mmio = 0;
	} else
		return -EINVAL;

	options = strchr(options, ',');//指针移到“115200n8”字符串处
	if (options) {//存在
		options++;
		device->baud = simple_strtoul(options, NULL, 0);//取得波特率115200
		length = min(strcspn(options, " "), sizeof(device->options));
		strncpy(device->options, options, length);//将字符串115200n8拷贝到设备的device->options字段中
	} else {
		device->baud = probe_baud(port);
		snprintf(device->options, sizeof(device->options), "%u",device->baud);
	}

	if (mmio || mmio32)
		printk(KERN_INFO "Early serial console at MMIO%s 0x%llx (options '%s')\n",mmio32 ? "32" : "",(unsigned long long)port->mapbase,device->options);
	else
		printk(KERN_INFO
		      "Early serial console at I/O port 0x%lx (options '%s')\n",port->iobase,device->options);

	return 0;
}

static void __init init_port(struct early_serial8250_device *device)
{
	struct uart_port *port = &device->port;
	unsigned int divisor;
	unsigned char c;

	serial_out(port, UART_LCR, 0x3);	/* 8n1 */
	serial_out(port, UART_IER, 0);		/* no interrupt */
	serial_out(port, UART_FCR, 0);		/* no fifo */
	serial_out(port, UART_MCR, 0x3);	/* DTR + RTS */

	divisor = port->uartclk / (16 * device->baud);//根据波特率设置分频
	c = serial_in(port, UART_LCR);
	serial_out(port, UART_LCR, c | UART_LCR_DLAB);
	serial_out(port, UART_DLL, divisor & 0xff);
	serial_out(port, UART_DLM, (divisor >> 8) & 0xff);
	serial_out(port, UART_LCR, c & ~UART_LCR_DLAB);
}

void register_console(struct console *newcon)
{
	int i;
	unsigned long flags;
	struct console *bcon = NULL;
	/*
	现在是注册一个early console,即
	static struct console early_serial8250_console __initdata = {
		.name	= "uart",
		.write	= early_serial8250_write,
		.flags	= CON_PRINTBUFFER | CON_BOOT,//所用具有CON_BOOT属性的console都会在内核初始化到late initcall阶段被注销,相互消他们的函数是
		.index	= -1,
	};
	*/
	if (console_drivers && newcon->flags & CON_BOOT) {//注册的是否是引导控制台。early console的CON_BOOT置位,表示只是一个引导控制台,以后会被注销
		for_each_console(bcon) {////遍历全局console_drivers数组   
			if (!(bcon->flags & CON_BOOT)) {//判断是否已经有引导控制台了,有了的话就直接退出
				printk(KERN_INFO "Too late to register bootconsole %s%d\n",newcon->name, newcon->index);
				return;
			}
		}
	}
	
	if (console_drivers && console_drivers->flags & CON_BOOT)//如果注册的是引导控制台  
		bcon = console_drivers;//让bcon指向全局console_drivers   

	if (preferred_console < 0 || bcon || !console_drivers)
		preferred_console = selected_console;//设置preferred_console为uboot命令选择的selected_console(即索引)   

	if (newcon->early_setup)//early console没有初始化early_setup字段,以下这个函数不执行
		newcon->early_setup();//调用serial8250_console_early_setup()


	if (preferred_console < 0) {
		if (newcon->index < 0)
			newcon->index = 0;
		if (newcon->setup == NULL ||newcon->setup(newcon, NULL) == 0) {
			newcon->flags |= CON_ENABLED;
			if (newcon->device) {
				newcon->flags |= CON_CONSDEV;
				preferred_console = 0;
			}
		}
	}

	 //传给内核参数:
	 //Kernel command line: console=ttyS2,115200n8 rw root=/dev/ram0 initrd=0xc2000000,20M mem=128M ip=192.168.1.220::192.168.1.1:255.255.255.0::eth0:off
	 //所以这里将根据传参console=ttyS2,115200来配置作为console的ttyS2串口
	for (i = 0; i < MAX_CMDLINECONSOLES && console_cmdline[i].name[0];i++) {//遍历全局console_cmdline找到匹配的 
		if (strcmp(console_cmdline[i].name, newcon->name) != 0)//比较终端名称“ttyS”
			continue;
		if (newcon->index >= 0 &&newcon->index != console_cmdline[i].index)//console_cmdline[i].index=2。//比较次设备号  
			continue;
		if (newcon->index < 0)
			newcon->index = console_cmdline[i].index;//将终端号赋值给serial8250_console->index
			
#ifdef CONFIG_A11Y_BRAILLE_CONSOLE//没有定义,下边不执行
		if (console_cmdline[i].brl_options) {
			newcon->flags |= CON_BRL;
			braille_register_console(newcon,console_cmdline[i].index,console_cmdline[i].options,console_cmdline[i].brl_options);
			return;
		}
#endif
		//console_cmdline[i].options = "115200n8",对于early console而言setup字段未被初始化,故下边的函数不执行
		if (newcon->setup &&newcon->setup(newcon, console_cmdline[i].options) != 0)//调用serial8250_console_setup()对终端进行配置
			break;
		newcon->flags |= CON_ENABLED; //设置标志为CON_ENABLE(这个在printk调用中使用到) 
		newcon->index = console_cmdline[i].index;//设置索引号   
		if (i == selected_console) { //索引号和uboot指定的console的一样 
			newcon->flags |= CON_CONSDEV;//设置标志CON_CONSDEV(全局console_drivers链表中靠前) 
			preferred_console = selected_console;
		}
		break;
	}//for循环作用大致是查看注册的console是否是uboot知道的引导console,是则设置相关标志和preferred_console

	if (!(newcon->flags & CON_ENABLED))
		return;

	if (bcon && ((newcon->flags & (CON_CONSDEV | CON_BOOT)) == CON_CONSDEV))//防止重复打印   
		newcon->flags &= ~CON_PRINTBUFFER;

	acquire_console_sem();
	if ((newcon->flags & CON_CONSDEV) || console_drivers == NULL) {//如果是preferred控制台
		newcon->next = console_drivers;
		console_drivers = newcon;//添加进全局console_drivers链表前面位置(printk中会遍历该表调用合适的console的write方法打印信息)
		if (newcon->next)
			newcon->next->flags &= ~CON_CONSDEV;
	} else {//如果不是preferred控制台 
		newcon->next = console_drivers->next;
		console_drivers->next = newcon; //添加进全局console_drivers链表后面位置
	}
	
	//主册console主要是刷选preferred_console放置在全局console_drivers链表前面,剩下的console放置链表靠后的位置,并设置相应的flags,
	//console_drivers最终会在printk函数的层层调用中遍历到,并调用console的write方法将信息打印出来

	if (newcon->flags & CON_PRINTBUFFER) {
		spin_lock_irqsave(&logbuf_lock, flags);
		con_start = log_start;
		spin_unlock_irqrestore(&logbuf_lock, flags);
	}
	release_console_sem();

	if (bcon && ((newcon->flags & (CON_CONSDEV | CON_BOOT)) == CON_CONSDEV)) {
		printk(KERN_INFO "console [%s%d] enabled, bootconsole disabled\n",newcon->name, newcon->index);
		for_each_console(bcon)
			if (bcon->flags & CON_BOOT)
				unregister_console(bcon);
	} else {//调用这里
		printk(KERN_INFO "%sconsole [%s%d] enabled\n",(newcon->flags & CON_BOOT) ? "boot" : "" ,newcon->name, newcon->index);
	}
}

四、在未对console进行初始化之前,内核使用early console进行打印。之后内核进行真正的console初始化
//console_init()在start_kernel()中调用,用来对控制台初始化,这个函数执行完成后,串口可以看到内核用printk()函数打印的信息
void __init console_init(void)
{
 initcall_t *call;

 /* Setup the default TTY line discipline. */
 //此函数调用tty_register_ldisc(N_TTY, &tty_ldisc_N_TTY)
 //#define N_TTY 0
 /*struct tty_ldisc_ops tty_ldisc_N_TTY = {
         .magic           = TTY_LDISC_MAGIC,
         .name            = "n_tty",
         .open            = n_tty_open,
         .close           = n_tty_close,
         .flush_buffer    = n_tty_flush_buffer,
         .chars_in_buffer = n_tty_chars_in_buffer,
         .read            = n_tty_read,
         .write           = n_tty_write,
         .ioctl           = n_tty_ioctl,
         .set_termios     = n_tty_set_termios,
         .poll            = n_tty_poll,
         .receive_buf     = n_tty_receive_buf,
         .write_wakeup    = n_tty_write_wakeup
 	};
	内核定义一个tty_ldiscs数组,然后根据数组下标来存放对应的线路规程的操作集,而这里的数组下标表示的就是具体的协议,在头文件中已经通过宏定义好了。例如N_TTY 0。 

	所以可以发现:ldisc[0] 存放的是N_TTY对应的线路规程操作集
	ldisc[1]存放的是N_SLIP对应的线路规程操作集
	ldisc[2]存放的就是N_MOUSE对应的线路规程操作集
	依次类推。此处就是ldisc[N_TTY] = tty_ldisc_N_TTY。

 int tty_register_ldisc(int disc, struct tty_ldisc_ops *new_ldisc)
	{
		 unsigned long flags;
		 int ret = 0;
		 if (disc < N_TTY || disc >= NR_LDISCS)
		         return -EINVAL;
		 spin_lock_irqsave(&tty_ldisc_lock, flags);
		 tty_ldiscs[disc] = new_ldisc;//tty_ldiscs[0]存放的是N_TTY对应的线路规程操作集
		 new_ldisc->num = disc;//0
		 new_ldisc->refcount = 0;
		 spin_unlock_irqrestore(&tty_ldisc_lock, flags);
		 return ret;
	 }
*/
 tty_ldisc_begin();//这段代码前面是注册了第0个(逻辑上1)线路规程

  //依次调用从__con_initcall_start到__con_initcall_end之间的函数指针
  //会调用两个函数就是con_init()和serial8250_console_init()
 call = __con_initcall_start;
 while (call < __con_initcall_end) {
  (*call)();
  call++;
 }
}

static int __init serial8250_console_init(void)
{
	if (nr_uarts > UART_NR)//串口数量不能大于3个
		nr_uarts = UART_NR;

	serial8250_isa_init_ports();//对三个串口的uart_8250_port结构静态常量serial8250_ports结构进行初始化,主要是将up->port.ops = &serial8250_pops
	/*
	static struct console serial8250_console = {
		.name		= "ttyS",
		.write		= serial8250_console_write,//写方法
		.device		= uart_console_device,//tty驱动
		.setup		= serial8250_console_setup,//设置串口波特率,也就是设置串口。很重要,里面涉及到平台特性,波特率相关。
		.early_setup	= serial8250_console_early_setup,
		.flags		= CON_PRINTBUFFER | CON_ANYTIME,
		.index		= -1,
		.data		= &serial8250_reg,
	};
	*/
	register_console(&serial8250_console);//在这里注册serial8250_console真正的console终端
	return 0;
}
console_initcall(serial8250_console_init);
/*
serial8250_console_init()函数会比serial8250_probe()先调用,所以调用register_console的时候,port还没有初始化,所以当
register_console调用serial8250_console_setup()设置buad,parity bits的时候,
serial8250_console_setup()会检测port->iobase和port->membase是否是有效值,如果不是就返回,
放弃初始化console,所以实际上,console不是在serial8250_console_init()里边初始化,
如果要在serial8250_console_init初始化,需要将port静态初始化.

当serial8250_probe()调用uart_add_one_port->uart_configure_port:
if (port->cons && !(port->cons->flags & CON_ENABLED)){
	printk("%s retister console\n", __FUNCTION__);
	register_console(port->cons);
}
该函数会检查console有没有初始化,如果没有初始化,则调用register_console来初始化.
所以console放在这里初始化也是比较好一些,可以将console_initcall(serial8250_console_init) comment.
*/

//对三个串口的uart_8250_port结构静态常量serial8250_ports结构进行初始化,主要是将up->port.ops = &serial8250_pops
static void __init serial8250_isa_init_ports(void)
{
	struct uart_8250_port *up;
	static int first = 1;
	int i, irqflag = 0;

	if (!first)//静态变量,serial8250_console_init()第一次进入这个函数,之后serial8250_init()再进入这个函数就会直接返回
		return;
	first = 0;
	
	//对三个串口的uart_8250_port结构serial8250_ports结构体进行初始化
	for (i = 0; i < nr_uarts; i++) {
		struct uart_8250_port *up = &serial8250_ports[i];

		up->port.line = i;//0代表串口0,1代表串口1
		spin_lock_init(&up->port.lock);

		init_timer(&up->timer);//初始化定时器
		up->timer.function = serial8250_timeout;//初始化定时器的超时函数

		//ALPHA_KLUDGE_MCR needs to be killed.
		up->mcr_mask = ~ALPHA_KLUDGE_MCR;
		up->mcr_force = ALPHA_KLUDGE_MCR;
		
		//初始化uart_8250_port指向的uart_port字段port的操作
		up->port.ops = &serial8250_pops;
		/*
		static struct uart_ops serial8250_pops = {
			.tx_empty	= serial8250_tx_empty,
			.set_mctrl	= serial8250_set_mctrl,
			.get_mctrl	= serial8250_get_mctrl,
			.stop_tx	= serial8250_stop_tx,
			.start_tx	= serial8250_start_tx,
			.stop_rx	= serial8250_stop_rx,
			.enable_ms	= serial8250_enable_ms,
			.break_ctl	= serial8250_break_ctl,
			.startup	= serial8250_startup,
			.shutdown	= serial8250_shutdown,
			.set_termios	= serial8250_set_termios,
			.set_ldisc	= serial8250_set_ldisc,
			.pm		= serial8250_pm,
			.type		= serial8250_type,
			.release_port	= serial8250_release_port,
			.request_port	= serial8250_request_port,
			.config_port	= serial8250_config_port,
			.verify_port	= serial8250_verify_port,
		#ifdef CONFIG_CONSOLE_POLL
			.poll_get_char = serial8250_get_poll_char,
			.poll_put_char = serial8250_put_poll_char,
		#endif
		};
		*/
	}

	if (share_irqs)//中断是否共享(这里设置成不共享)
		irqflag = IRQF_SHARED;
	
	//条件不满足,不会进来初始化
	for (i = 0, up = serial8250_ports;i < ARRAY_SIZE(old_serial_port) && i < nr_uarts;i++, up++) {
/*	up->port.iobase   = old_serial_port[i].port;
		up->port.irq      = irq_canonicalize(old_serial_port[i].irq);
		up->port.irqflags = old_serial_port[i].irqflags;
		up->port.uartclk  = old_serial_port[i].baud_base * 16;
		up->port.flags    = old_serial_port[i].flags;
		up->port.hub6     = old_serial_port[i].hub6;
		up->port.membase  = old_serial_port[i].iomem_base;
		up->port.iotype   = old_serial_port[i].io_type;
		up->port.regshift = old_serial_port[i].iomem_reg_shift;
		set_io_from_upio(&up->port);
		up->port.irqflags |= irqflag;
		if (serial8250_isa_config != NULL)
			serial8250_isa_config(i, &up->port, &up->capabilities);
*/
	}
}

//下边再次调用register_console()注册serial8250_console真正的console终端
void register_console(struct console *newcon)
{
	int i;
	unsigned long flags;
	struct console *bcon = NULL;
	/*
	现在是注册一个serial8250_console,即
	static struct console serial8250_console = {
		.name		= "ttyS",
		.write		= serial8250_console_write,//写方法
		.device		= uart_console_device,//tty驱动
		.setup		= serial8250_console_setup,//设置串口波特率,也就是设置串口。很重要,里面涉及到平台特性,波特率相关。
		.early_setup	= serial8250_console_early_setup,
		.flags		= CON_PRINTBUFFER | CON_ANYTIME,
		.index		= -1,
		.data		= &serial8250_reg,
	};
	*/
	if (console_drivers && newcon->flags & CON_BOOT) {//注册的是serial8250_console,CON_BOOT没有置位,不是引导控制台。下边不会进去遍历
		for_each_console(bcon) {////遍历全局console_drivers数组   
			if (!(bcon->flags & CON_BOOT)) {//判断是否已经有引导控制台了,有了的话就直接退出
				printk(KERN_INFO "Too late to register bootconsole %s%d\n",newcon->name, newcon->index);
				return;
			}
		}
	}
	
	if (console_drivers && console_drivers->flags & CON_BOOT)//如果注册的是引导控制台,serial8250_console不是引导控制台
		bcon = console_drivers;//这里不执行 

	if (preferred_console < 0 || bcon || !console_drivers)
		preferred_console = selected_console;//设置preferred_console为uboot命令选择的selected_console(即在Uboot传入的参数“console=ttyS2,115200n8”在console_cmdline[]数组中的索引)   
																				 //这里preferred_console =0
	if (newcon->early_setup)//serial8250_console初始化early_setup字段
		newcon->early_setup();//调用serial8250_console_early_setup()


	if (preferred_console < 0) {//由于preferred_console =0,不会进入下边
		if (newcon->index < 0)
			newcon->index = 0;
		if (newcon->setup == NULL ||newcon->setup(newcon, NULL) == 0) {
			newcon->flags |= CON_ENABLED;
			if (newcon->device) {
				newcon->flags |= CON_CONSDEV;
				preferred_console = 0;
			}
		}
	}

	 //传给内核参数:
	 //Kernel command line: console=ttyS2,115200n8 rw root=/dev/ram0 initrd=0xc2000000,20M mem=128M ip=192.168.1.220::192.168.1.1:255.255.255.0::eth0:off
	 //所以这里将根据传参console=ttyS2,115200来配置作为console的ttyS2串口
	for (i = 0; i < MAX_CMDLINECONSOLES && console_cmdline[i].name[0];i++) {//遍历全局console_cmdline找到匹配的,i=0就是匹配的“ttyS2”
		if (strcmp(console_cmdline[i].name, newcon->name) != 0)//比较终端名称“ttyS”
			continue;
		if (newcon->index >= 0 &&newcon->index != console_cmdline[i].index)//console_cmdline[i].index=2。//比较次设备号  
			continue;
		if (newcon->index < 0)
			newcon->index = console_cmdline[i].index;//将终端号赋值给serial8250_console->index,这里是2
			
		//console_cmdline[i].options = "115200n8",对于serial8250_console而言setup字段已初始化
		if (newcon->setup && newcon->setup(newcon, console_cmdline[i].options) != 0)//调用serial8250_console_setup()对终端进行配置,调用不成功
			break;
		//在这里注册serial8250_console时,调用serial8250_console_setup()由于port->iobase和port->membase不是有效值,
		//故返回错误,这样下边的操作不会执行,直接break跳出,从flag1出跳出函数。即在这里serial8250_console没有注册成功
		//由于内核在下边的操作队串口进行初始化时,还会调用register_console()来注册serial8250_console,在那时注册就会成功
		
		newcon->flags |= CON_ENABLED; //设置标志为CON_ENABLE,表示console使能(这个在printk调用中使用到) 
		newcon->index = console_cmdline[i].index;//设置索引号   
		if (i == selected_console) { //索引号和uboot指定的console的一样 
			newcon->flags |= CON_CONSDEV;//设置标志CON_CONSDEV(全局console_drivers链表中靠前) 
			preferred_console = selected_console;
		}
		break;
	}//for循环作用大致是查看注册的console是否是uboot知道的引导console,是则设置相关标志和preferred_console

  //flag1:
	if (!(newcon->flags & CON_ENABLED))//若前边没有设置CON_ENABLED标志,就退出
		return;

	if (bcon && ((newcon->flags & (CON_CONSDEV | CON_BOOT)) == CON_CONSDEV))//防止重复打印   
		newcon->flags &= ~CON_PRINTBUFFER;

	acquire_console_sem();
	if ((newcon->flags & CON_CONSDEV) || console_drivers == NULL) {//如果是preferred控制台
		newcon->next = console_drivers;
		console_drivers = newcon;//添加进全局console_drivers链表前面位置(printk中会遍历该表调用合适的console的write方法打印信息)
		if (newcon->next)
			newcon->next->flags &= ~CON_CONSDEV;
	} else {//如果不是preferred控制台 
		newcon->next = console_drivers->next;
		console_drivers->next = newcon; //添加进全局console_drivers链表后面位置
	}
	
	//主册console主要是刷选preferred_console放置在全局console_drivers链表前面,剩下的console放置链表靠后的位置,并设置相应的flags,
	//console_drivers最终会在printk函数的层层调用中遍历到,并调用console的write方法将信息打印出来

	if (newcon->flags & CON_PRINTBUFFER) {
		spin_lock_irqsave(&logbuf_lock, flags);
		con_start = log_start;
		spin_unlock_irqrestore(&logbuf_lock, flags);
	}
	release_console_sem();

	if (bcon && ((newcon->flags & (CON_CONSDEV | CON_BOOT)) == CON_CONSDEV)) {
		printk(KERN_INFO "console [%s%d] enabled, bootconsole disabled\n",newcon->name, newcon->index);
		for_each_console(bcon)
			if (bcon->flags & CON_BOOT)
				unregister_console(bcon);
	} else {//调用这里
		printk(KERN_INFO "%sconsole [%s%d] enabled\n",(newcon->flags & CON_BOOT) ? "boot" : "" ,newcon->name, newcon->index);
	}
}

//serial8250_console_early_setup()-->serial8250_find_port_for_earlycon()
int serial8250_find_port_for_earlycon(void)
{
	struct early_serial8250_device *device = &early_device;//early console初始化时对early_device结构的初始化
	struct uart_port *port = &device->port;
	int line;
	int ret;

	if (!device->port.membase && !device->port.iobase)//early_device结构初始化时已经配置好
		return -ENODEV;
	//early console注册时不会调用此函数。
	//当真正的console初始化时,会调用此函数。
	//真正的console初始化时,会查找early console注册时用的是哪一个串口号,从serial8250_ports[]中根据uart_port->mapbase地址来比对
	line = serial8250_find_port(port);//根据uart_port结构找到串口号,比对没有找到串口号,line返回负值
	if (line < 0)
		return -ENODEV;//从这里返回,下边的不再执行
	
	//若找到early console用的串口号,更新当初传入内核参数使用的console_cmdline[i],名称改成ttyS。。。。
	ret = update_console_cmdline("uart", 8250, "ttyS", line, device->options);
	if (ret < 0)
		ret = update_console_cmdline("uart", 0,"ttyS", line, device->options);

	return ret;
}

static int __init serial8250_console_setup(struct console *co, char *options)
{
	struct uart_port *port;
	int baud = 9600;
	int bits = 8;
	int parity = 'n';
	int flow = 'n';

	if (co->index >= nr_uarts)//console的索引,这里是2,即ttyS2
		co->index = 0;
	port = &serial8250_ports[co->index].port;//找到对应的ttyS2的uart_port结构
	
	//由于console_init在注册serial8250_console时调用的register_console()函数调用serial8250_console_setup()
	//进入这个函数时,由于ttyS2的uart_port结构没有初始化,port->iobase 和port->membase值都未设置,所以直接从下边返回
	//当进行串口初始化时,还会回来注册serial8250_console,再调用到这里,由于设置了ttyS2的uart_port结构,所以下边的配置就会成功
	if (!port->iobase && !port->membase)//第一次注册时,由于未设置,从这里直接返回
		return -ENODEV;

	if (options)//如果options不为空,就将options里的数值写给baud, &parity, &bits, &flow
		uart_parse_options(options, &baud, &parity, &bits, &flow);
	//没有配置options,则使用缺省值,否则使用传下来的的参数options里的串口配置
	return uart_set_options(port, co, baud, parity, bits, flow);
}

五、通过四知道,在对console注册时,没有成功,由于串口还没有配置。当对串口配置时再对console注册就能成功。
serial8250_console就能注册到内核全局变量console_drivers中。这样终端打印时就通过注册的serial8250_console就能将信息打印到终端上。
 
//内核的打印函数
asmlinkage int printk(const char *fmt, ...)
{
	va_list args;	//可变参数链表
	int r;

#ifdef CONFIG_KGDB_KDB
	if (unlikely(kdb_trap_printk)) {
		va_start(args, fmt);
		r = vkdb_printf(fmt, args);
		va_end(args);
		return r;
	}
#endif
	va_start(args, fmt);	//获取第一个可变参数
	r = vprintk(fmt, args);	//调用vprintk函数
	va_end(args);	//释放可变参数链表指针

	return r;
}

//vprintk函数
asmlinkage int vprintk(const char *fmt, va_list args)
{
	int printed_len = 0;
	int current_log_level = default_message_loglevel;
	unsigned long flags;
	int this_cpu;
	char *p;

	boot_delay_msec();
	printk_delay();
	preempt_disable();
	raw_local_irq_save(flags);
	this_cpu = smp_processor_id();
	if (unlikely(printk_cpu == this_cpu)) {
		if (!oops_in_progress) {
			recursion_bug = 1;
			goto out_restore_irqs;
		}
		zap_locks();
	}

	lockdep_off();
	spin_lock(&logbuf_lock);
	printk_cpu = this_cpu;

	if (recursion_bug) {
		recursion_bug = 0;
		strcpy(printk_buf, recursion_bug_msg);
		printed_len = strlen(recursion_bug_msg);
	}
	printed_len += vscnprintf(printk_buf + printed_len,sizeof(printk_buf) - printed_len, fmt, args);
	p = printk_buf;
	if (p[0] == '<') {//处理打印级别字段
		unsigned char c = p[1];
		if (c && p[2] == '>') {
			switch (c) {
			case '0' ... '7': /* loglevel */
				current_log_level = c - '0';
			case 'd': /* KERN_DEFAULT */
				if (!new_text_line) {
					emit_log_char('\n');
					new_text_line = 1;
				}
			case 'c': /* KERN_CONT */
				p += 3;
				break;
			}
		}
	}
	for ( ; *p; p++) {
		if (new_text_line) {
			/* Always output the token */
			emit_log_char('<');
			emit_log_char(current_log_level + '0');
			emit_log_char('>');
			printed_len += 3;
			new_text_line = 0;

			if (printk_time) {		//打印时间信息
				/* Follow the token with the time */
				char tbuf[50], *tp;
				unsigned tlen;
				unsigned long long t;
				unsigned long nanosec_rem;

				t = cpu_clock(printk_cpu);
				nanosec_rem = do_div(t, 1000000000);
				tlen = sprintf(tbuf, "[%5lu.%06lu] ",(unsigned long) t,nanosec_rem / 1000);

				for (tp = tbuf; tp < tbuf + tlen; tp++)
					emit_log_char(*tp);
				printed_len += tlen;
			}

			if (!*p)
				break;
		}

		emit_log_char(*p);
		if (*p == '\n')
			new_text_line = 1;
	}
	if (acquire_console_semaphore_for_printk(this_cpu))
		release_console_sem();

	lockdep_on();
out_restore_irqs:
	raw_local_irq_restore(flags);

	preempt_enable();
	return printed_len;
}

//接着调用release_console_sem函数 
void release_console_sem(void)
{
	unsigned long flags;
	unsigned _con_start, _log_end;
	unsigned wake_klogd = 0;

	if (console_suspended) {
		up(&console_sem);
		return;
	}

	console_may_schedule = 0;

	for ( ; ; ) {
		spin_lock_irqsave(&logbuf_lock, flags);
		wake_klogd |= log_start - log_end;
		if (con_start == log_end)
			break;			/* Nothing to print */
		_con_start = con_start;
		_log_end = log_end;
		con_start = log_end;		/* Flush */
		spin_unlock(&logbuf_lock);
		stop_critical_timings();	/* don't trace print latency */
		call_console_drivers(_con_start, _log_end);
		start_critical_timings();
		local_irq_restore(flags);
	}
	console_locked = 0;
	up(&console_sem);
	spin_unlock_irqrestore(&logbuf_lock, flags);
	if (wake_klogd)
		wake_up_klogd();
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(release_console_sem);

//调用call_console_drivers函数
static void call_console_drivers(unsigned start, unsigned end)
{
	unsigned cur_index, start_print;
	static int msg_level = -1;

	BUG_ON(((int)(start - end)) > 0);

	cur_index = start;
	start_print = start;
	while (cur_index != end) {
		if (msg_level < 0 && ((end - cur_index) > 2) &&LOG_BUF(cur_index + 0) == '<' &&LOG_BUF(cur_index + 1) >= '0' &&LOG_BUF(cur_index + 1) <= '7' &&LOG_BUF(cur_index + 2) == '>') {
			msg_level = LOG_BUF(cur_index + 1) - '0';
			cur_index += 3;
			start_print = cur_index;
		}
		while (cur_index != end) {
			char c = LOG_BUF(cur_index);

			cur_index++;
			if (c == '\n') {
				if (msg_level < 0) {
					msg_level = default_message_loglevel;
				}
				_call_console_drivers(start_print, cur_index, msg_level);
				msg_level = -1;
				start_print = cur_index;
				break;
			}
		}
	}
	_call_console_drivers(start_print, end, msg_level);
}_call_console_drivers函数

//调用console的写方法
static void __call_console_drivers(unsigned start, unsigned end)  
{  
    struct console *con;  
  
    for_each_console(con) {//遍历console_drivers数组 #define for_each_console(con) for (con = console_drivers; con != NULL; con = con->next)  

        if ((con->flags & CON_ENABLED) && con->write &&(cpu_online(smp_processor_id()) ||(con->flags & CON_ANYTIME)))  
            con->write(con, &LOG_BUF(start), end - start);   //调用console的写方法   
    }  
}  

//由于已经注册的终端是serial8250_console,这个终端的写方法是调用serial8250_console_write()函数--->uart_console_write()--->serial8250_console_putchar()
//--->serial_out()最终打印在串口2终端上
/*
	static struct console serial8250_console = {
		.name		= "ttyS",
		.write		= serial8250_console_write,//写方法
		.device		= uart_console_device,//tty驱动
		.setup		= serial8250_console_setup,//设置串口波特率,也就是设置串口。很重要,里面涉及到平台特性,波特率相关。
		.early_setup	= serial8250_console_early_setup,
		.flags		= CON_PRINTBUFFER | CON_ANYTIME,
		.index		= -1,
		.data		= &serial8250_reg,
	};
	*/
console_drivers链表在register_console中会设置
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