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2009-05-13 16:22:16

二 注册中断

这部分我们以3sc2410下的watchdog的中断为例来讲解中断的注册及调用过程。

drivers/char/watchdog/s3c2410_wdt.c:

static int s3c2410wdt_probe(struct platform_device *pdev)

{

……

    /*注册中断*/

    ret = request_irq(res->start, s3c2410wdt_irq, 0, pdev->name, pdev);

……

}

s3c2410wdt_probe函数中为watchdog注册了一个中断,中断号为IRQ_WDT

#define IRQ_WDT        S3C2410_IRQ(9)

中断处理函数是s3c2410wdt_irq

我们来看request_irq是如何实现的:

kernel/irq/Manage.c:

/**

 *  request_irq - allocate an interrupt line

 *  @irq: Interrupt line to allocate

 *  @handler: Function to be called when the IRQ occurs

 *  @irqflags: Interrupt type flags

 *  @devname: An ascii name for the claiming device

 *  @dev_id: A cookie passed back to the handler function

 *

 *  This call allocates interrupt resources and enables the

 *  interrupt line and IRQ handling. From the point this

 *  call is made your handler function may be invoked. Since

 *  your handler function must clear any interrupt the board

 *  raises, you must take care both to initialise your hardware

 *  and to set up the interrupt handler in the right order.

 *

 *  Dev_id must be globally unique. Normally the address of the

 *  device data structure is used as the cookie. Since the handler

 *  receives this value it makes sense to use it.

 *

 *  If your interrupt is shared you must pass a non NULL dev_id

 *  as this is required when freeing the interrupt.

 *

 *  Flags:

 *

 *  IRQF_SHARED     Interrupt is shared

 *  IRQF_DISABLED   Disable local interrupts while processing

 *  IRQF_SAMPLE_RANDOM The interrupt can be used for entropy

 *

 */

int request_irq(unsigned int irq,

        irqreturn_t (*handler)(int, void *, struct pt_regs *),

        unsigned long irqflags, const char *devname, void *dev_id)

{

    struct irqaction *action;

    int retval;

 

#ifdef CONFIG_LOCKDEP

    /*

     * Lockdep wants atomic interrupt handlers:

     */

    irqflags |= SA_INTERRUPT;

#endif

    /*

     * Sanity-check: shared interrupts must pass in a real dev-ID,

     * otherwise we'll have trouble later trying to figure out

     * which interrupt is which (messes up the interrupt freeing

     * logic etc).

     */

    /*允许共享的中断必须要有一个独一无二的dev_id, 看上面函数的解释

    if ((irqflags & IRQF_SHARED) && !dev_id)

        return -EINVAL;

    if (irq >= NR_IRQS) /*中断号是否合法*/

        return -EINVAL;

    /*这个标记对s3c2410来说在s3c24xx_init_irq里通过调用set_irq_flags()被去掉了*/

    if (irq_desc[irq].status & IRQ_NOREQUEST)

        return -EINVAL;

    if (!handler)  /*中断例程*/

        return -EINVAL;

   

    /*分配一个irqaction对象,来保存这个中断信息*/

    action = kmalloc(sizeof(struct irqaction), GFP_ATOMIC);

    if (!action)

        return -ENOMEM;

   

   /*保存中断例程等信息*/

    action->handler = handler;

    action->flags = irqflags;

    cpus_clear(action->mask);   /*清除相应位*/

    action->name = devname;

    action->next = NULL;

    action->dev_id = dev_id;

 

    select_smp_affinity(irq);

 

    retval = setup_irq(irq, action);/*申请中断*/

    if (retval)

        kfree(action);

 

    return retval;

}

该函数的功能及参数含义在函数头有详细的说明,这里就不多介绍了,值得注意的是我们在申请中断之前,必须要去掉该中断的IRQ_NOREQUEST标记(系统初始化的时候赋了这个标记), 具体方法是调用set_irq_flags()函数。

 接着看setup_irq

kernel/irq/Manage.c:

/*

 * Internal function to register an irqaction - typically used to

 * allocate special interrupts that are part of the architecture.

 */

int setup_irq(unsigned int irq, struct irqaction *new)

{

    struct irq_desc *desc = irq_desc + irq; /*获取保存该中断的中断描述符地址*/

    struct irqaction *old, **p;

    unsigned long flags;

    int shared = 0;

 

    if (irq >= NR_IRQS)

        return -EINVAL;

 

    /*对于s3c2410的中断在s3c24xx_init_irq里已经初始化过了*/

    if (desc->chip == &no_irq_chip)

        return -ENOSYS;

    /*

     * Some drivers like serial.c use request_irq() heavily,

     * so we have to be careful not to interfere with a

     * running system.

     */

    if (new->flags & IRQF_SAMPLE_RANDOM) {

        /*

         * This function might sleep, we want to call it first,

         * outside of the atomic block.

         * Yes, this might clear the entropy pool if the wrong

         * driver is attempted to be loaded, without actually

         * installing a new handler, but is this really a problem,

         * only the sysadmin is able to do this.

         */

        rand_initialize_irq(irq);

    }

 

    /*

     * The following block of code has to be executed atomically

     */

     /*

下面if代码段主要是查看该中断是否可以共享,如可以,则把中断例程链入中断例程

* list至于中断共享的条件有: 1 触发方式相同, 2 都允许中断共享*/

    spin_lock_irqsave(&desc->lock, flags);

    p = &desc->action;

    old = *p;

    if (old) { /*对于IRQ_WDT,这个if不成立,但它已经设置了handle_irq */

        /*

         * Can't share interrupts unless both agree to and are

         * the same type (level, edge, polarity). So both flag

         * fields must have IRQF_SHARED set and the bits which

         * set the trigger type must match.

         */

        /*判断能否共享中断*/

        if (!((old->flags & new->flags) & IRQF_SHARED) ||

            ((old->flags ^ new->flags) & IRQF_TRIGGER_MASK))

            goto mismatch;

 

#if defined(CONFIG_IRQ_PER_CPU)

        /* All handlers must agree on per-cpuness */

        if ((old->flags & IRQF_PERCPU) !=

            (new->flags & IRQF_PERCPU))

            goto mismatch;

#endif

 

        /* add new interrupt at end of irq queue */

        /*把中断例程加入list*/

        do {

            p = &old->next;

            old = *p;

        } while (old);

        shared = 1;

    }

 

    *p = new;  /*该行很关键, 它把中断的处理函数添加到该中断描述符的中断例程list*/

#if defined(CONFIG_IRQ_PER_CPU)

    if (new->flags & IRQF_PERCPU)

        desc->status |= IRQ_PER_CPU;

#endif

    if (!shared) {

/*对于IRQ_WDT来说这步是多余的,初始化的时候已做过*/

        irq_chip_set_defaults(desc->chip);

 

        /* Setup the type (level, edge polarity) if configured: */

/*对于IRQ_WDT来说,没有定义触发方式, 即默认触发方式*/

        if (new->flags & IRQF_TRIGGER_MASK) {

            /*如果要设触发方式,则调用平台特定的函数,因此如果我们的平台要实现该功能则必*须要在irq_chip对象里加入对set_type 函数的支持*/

            if (desc->chip && desc->chip->set_type)

               desc->chip->set_type(irq,

                       new->flags & IRQF_TRIGGER_MASK);

            else

               /*

                * IRQF_TRIGGER_* but the PIC does not support

                * multiple flow-types?

                 */

               printk(KERN_WARNING "No IRQF_TRIGGER set_type "

                      "function for IRQ %d (%s)\n", irq,

                      desc->chip ? desc->chip->name :

                      "unknown");

        } else

            /*这函数只是简单的检查是否有handle_irq*/

            compat_irq_chip_set_default_handler(desc);

 

        /*去掉中断的相关状态,让它就绪*/

        desc->status &= ~(IRQ_AUTODETECT | IRQ_WAITING |

                 IRQ_INPROGRESS);

 

        if (!(desc->status & IRQ_NOAUTOEN)) {

            /*使能该中断*/

            desc->depth = 0;

            desc->status &= ~IRQ_DISABLED;

            if (desc->chip->startup)

               desc->chip->startup(irq); /*平台相关函数*/

            else

               desc->chip->enable(irq);  /*平台相关函数*/

        } else

            /* Undo nested disables: */

            desc->depth = 1;

    }

    spin_unlock_irqrestore(&desc->lock, flags);

 

    new->irq = irq;

    register_irq_proc(irq);  /*/proc/irq/下创建该中断的一个文件*/

    new->dir = NULL;

    register_handler_proc(irq, new); /*/proc/irq/下创建的文件设置处理函数*/

 

    return 0;

 

mismatch:

    spin_unlock_irqrestore(&desc->lock, flags);

    if (!(new->flags & IRQF_PROBE_SHARED)) {

        printk(KERN_ERR "IRQ handler type mismatch for IRQ %d\n", irq);

        dump_stack();

    }

    return -EBUSY;

}

该函数主要是安装了一个中断,并使能它。 我们先看使能函数,它是平台相关的,对于s3c2410IRQ_WDT来说使用的是默认的使能函数(default_startup(),初始化赋值),如果我们要使用自己的使能函数,只要在chip对象里添加就行了。

kernel/irq/Chip.c:

static unsigned int default_startup(unsigned int irq)

{

    irq_desc[irq].chip->enable(irq); 

 

    return 0;

}

对于IRQ_WDT来说调用的irq_desc[irq].chip->enable(irq)仍是默认函数:default_enable()

kernel/irq/Chip.c:

static void default_enable(unsigned int irq)

{

    struct irq_desc *desc = irq_desc + irq;

 

    desc->chip->unmask(irq);   /*unmask该中断*/

    desc->status &= ~IRQ_MASKED; 

}

呵呵,对于IRQ_WDT来说这次的调用desc->chip->unmask(irq),实际上是s3c_irq_unmask, 具体可查看前面分析的chip对象。

arch/arm/mach-s3c2410/Irq.c:

static void

s3c_irq_unmask(unsigned int irqno)

{

    unsigned long mask;

 

    if (irqno != IRQ_TIMER4 && irqno != IRQ_EINT8t23)

        irqdbf2("s3c_irq_unmask %d\n", irqno);

 

    irqno -= IRQ_EINT0;

 

    mask = __raw_readl(S3C2410_INTMSK);

    mask &= ~(1UL << irqno);

    __raw_writel(mask, S3C2410_INTMSK);

}

对着s3c2410data sheet一看就知道了, 就是打开相应中断。

至此中断处理函数安装好了,中断也打开了,系统就可以正确的响应中断了。

Ok,到此为止IRQ_WDT的中断注册过程已完成,此时的中断描述符如下所示:



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