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分类: Web开发

2013-02-03 22:55:52

JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) is a simple data interchange format. Syntactically it resembles the objects and lists of JavaScript. It is most commonly used for communication between web back-ends and JavaScript programs running in the browser, but it is used in many other places, too. Its home page, , provides a wonderfully clear and concise definition of the standard.

JSON(javascript object Notation)是轻量级的数据交换格式 它和Javascript中的对象和数组语法上类似 JSON目前广泛用于前后台数据交互 json.org提供了更多的介绍 有兴趣的可以移步至JSON的官网

With the  it's a snap to read and write JSON data from your Go programs.

Go自带的json包可以轻松地帮你在Go程序中搞定JSON

Encoding

To encode JSON data we use the  function.

使用Marshal函数来将数据编码成JSON数据

func Marshal(v interface{}) ([]byte, error)

Given the Go data structure, Message,

下面这个例子展示了一个Go的数据结构Message,

type Message struct {
    Name string
    Body string
    Time int64
}

and an instance of Message

以及Message的一个实例

m := Message{"Alice", "Hello", 1294706395881547000}

we can marshal a JSON-encoded version of m using json.Marshal:

可以使用json.Marshal来编码成JSON,

b, err := json.Marshal(m)

If all is well, err will be nil and b will be a []byte containing this JSON data:

一切顺利的话,err是nil,b是[]byte类型的JSON数据

b == []byte(`{"Name":"Alice","Body":"Hello","Time":1294706395881547000}`)

Only data structures that can be represented as valid JSON will be encoded:

只有可以被编码成JSON的数据结构才可以被编码成相应的JSON:

  • JSON objects only support strings as keys; to encode a Go map type it must be of the form map[string]T (where T is any Go type supported by the json package).
  • JSON对象只支持string作为key 如果map类型想编码成JSON数据那么它只能是map[string]T,T是任意的json包支持的Go数据类型
  • Channel, complex, and function types cannot be encoded.
  • Channel,complex还有函数类型不能被编码成JSON
  • Cyclic data structures are not supported; they will cause Marshal to go into an infinite loop.
  • 能形成环路的数据结构不能编码成JSON 它们会导致Marshal函数无限循环
  • Pointers will be encoded as the values they point to (or 'null' if the pointer is nil).
  • 指针类型可以被编码成它们所指向的数据

The json package only accesses the exported fields of struct types (those that begin with an uppercase letter). Therefore only the exported fields of a struct will be present in the JSON output.

json包只能将结构体中 可以被外部直接访问的字段编码 也就是那些以大写开头的字段


Decoding

To decode JSON data we use the  function.

可以使用Unmarshal来decode JSON数据

func Unmarshal(data []byte, v interface{}) error

We must first create a place where the decoded data will be stored

首先创建一个变量 decode后的JSON数据将被存到这个变量中去

var m Message

and call json.Unmarshal, passing it a []byte of JSON data and a pointer to m

接着调用json.Unmarshal []byte的JSON数据 和指向m的指针作为参数传递给它

err := json.Unmarshal(b, &m)

If b contains valid JSON that fits in m, after the call err will be nil and the data from b will have been stored in the struct m, as if by an assignment like:

如果b是符合m定义的,合法的JSON err就是nil b中的JSON数据就被存到了m

m = Message{
        Name: "Alice",
        Body: "Hello",
        Time: 1294706395881547000,
    }

How does Unmarshal identify the fields in which to store the decoded data? For a given JSON key "Foo", Unmarshal will look through the destination struct's fields to find (in order of preference):

Unmarshal是如何正确地把JSON数据存到结构体中对于的字段的呢? 给定一个JSON的键Foo Unmarshal会遍历结构的域:

  • An exported field with a tag of `json:"Foo"` (see the  for more on struct tags),
  • 可被外部访问的标记    `json:"Foo"`
  • An exported field named "Foo", or
  • 可被外部访问的Foo字段
  • An exported field named "FOO" or "FoO" or some other case-insensitive match of "Foo".
  • 其它可以被外部访问的 忽略大小写的字段 比如 FOO FOo等

What happens when the structure of the JSON data doesn't exactly match the Go type?

如果JSON的结构不符合Go的类型 会出现什么样的状况呢?

b := []byte(`{"Name":"Bob","Food":"Pickle"}`)
    var m Message
    err := json.Unmarshal(b, &m)

Unmarshal will decode only the fields that it can find in the destination type. In this case, only the Name field of m will be populated, and the Food field will be ignored. This behavior is particularly useful when you wish to pick only a few specific fields out of a large JSON blob. It also means that any unexported fields in the destination struct will be unaffected by Unmarshal.

Unmarshal只会把它可以识别出来的那些字段给解码 存放到m 想上面代码中Food字段就会被忽略 当我们只需要几个特定的字段时 这个行为非常游泳 当然了那些不能被外部访问的字段肯定是彻底被无视了

But what if you don't know the structure of your JSON data beforehand?

很多时候 事先我们并不知道JSON的结构是怎么样的


Generic JSON with interface{}

The interface{} (empty interface) type describes an interface with zero methods. Every Go type implements at least zero methods and therefore satisfies the empty interface.

空接口类型interface{} 定义了一个没有任何方法的接口 任何一个Go类型都实现了至少0个方法(废话)所以说它满足空接口的要求

The empty interface serves as a general container type:

空接口可以被当做是通用的类型容器:

var i interface{}
    i = "a string"
    i = 2011
    i = 2.777

A type assertion accesses the underlying concrete type:

类型断言可以访问到底层具体的类型:

r := i.(float64)
    fmt.Println("the circle's area", math.Pi*r*r)

Or, if the underlying type is unknown, a type switch determines the type:

或者 如果底层的类型未知 会通过leixing switch类去顶它的类型:

switch v := i.(type) {
    case int:
        fmt.Println("twice i is", v*2)
    case float64:
        fmt.Println("the reciprocal of i is", 1/v)
    case string:
        h := len(v) / 2
        fmt.Println("i swapped by halves is", v[h:]+v[:h])
    default: // i isn't one of the types above }

The json package uses map[string]interface{} and []interface{} values to store arbitrary JSON objects and arrays; it will happily unmarshal any valid JSON blob into a plain interface{} value. The default concrete Go types are:

json包使用map[string]interface{}和[]interface{}来存任意的JSON对象或者数组 它会傻不愣登地解开所有合法的JSON 存到interface{}

  • bool for JSON booleans,  bool对应JSON的布尔值
  • float64 for JSON numbers, float64对应JSON的数字
  • string for JSON strings, and string对应JSON的string
  • nil for JSON null.  nil对应JSON的null


Decoding arbitrary data

Consider this JSON data, stored in the variable b:

考虑这个JSON数据

b := []byte(`{"Name":"Wednesday","Age":6,"Parents":["Gomez","Morticia"]}`)

Without knowing this data's structure, we can decode it into an interface{} value with Unmarshal:

在不知道它的具体结构的情况下 我们decode到一个interface{}值

var f interface{}
    err := json.Unmarshal(b, &f)

At this point the Go value in f would be a map whose keys are strings and whose values are themselves stored as empty interface values:

调用Unmarshal decode后 被保存在f 结构如下:

f = map[string]interface{}{
        "Name": "Wednesday",
        "Age":  6,
        "Parents": []interface{}{
            "Gomez",
            "Morticia",
        },
    }

To access this data we can use a type assertion to access f's underlying map[string]interface{}:

要访问这个数据 我们可以使用类型断言:

m := f.(map[string]interface{})

We can then iterate through the map with a range statement and use a type switch to access its values as their concrete types:

之后 可以使用range来遍历它 使用类型断言来访问底层的数据:

for k, v := range m {
        switch vv := v.(type) {
        case string:
            fmt.Println(k, "is string", vv)
        case int:
            fmt.Println(k, "is int", vv)
        case []interface{}:
            fmt.Println(k, "is an array:")
            for i, u := range vv {
                fmt.Println(i, u)
            }
        default:
            fmt.Println(k, "is of a type I don't know how to handle")
        }
    }

In this way you can work with unknown JSON data while still enjoying the benefits of type safety.

啊 春暖花开啊 你可以用这招来搞定各种未知的JSON妞


Reference Types

Let's define a Go type to contain the data from the previous example:

重新定义前面例子中的Go类型

type FamilyMember struct {
    Name    string
    Age     int
    Parents []string
}
var m FamilyMember
    err := json.Unmarshal(b, &m)

Unmarshaling that data into a FamilyMember value works as expected, but if we look closely we can see a remarkable thing has happened. With the var statement we allocated a FamilyMember struct, and then provided a pointer to that value to Unmarshal, but at that time the Parents field was a nil slice value. To populate the Parentsfield, Unmarshal allocated a new slice behind the scenes. This is typical of how Unmarshal works with the supported reference types (pointers, slices, and maps).

调用Unmarshal 它会和之前一样乖乖地decode JSON数据 并且结果存到m 但是 仔细观察 我们会发现奇迹发生了啊 var m FamilyMember定义了一个FamliyMember结构体实例 同时Parents这个与的值是slice nil 体冲这个Parents字段 Unmarshal默默地创建了一个slice 

Consider unmarshaling into this data structure:

再看一个例子:

type Foo struct {
    Bar *Bar
}

If there were a Bar field in the JSON object, Unmarshal would allocate a new Bar and populate it. If not, Bar would be left as a nil pointer.

如果JSON对象包括Bar字段 Unmarshal会分配一个新的Bar 并且给它初始化 如果没有 Bar就是指针nil

From this a useful pattern arises: if you have an application that receives a few distinct message types, you might define "receiver" structure like

如果你的应用接受很多不同类型的值 你可以定义receiver结构体:

type IncomingMessage struct {
    Cmd *Command
    Msg *Message
}

and the sending party can populate the Cmd field and/or the Msg field of the top-level JSON object, depending on the type of message they want to communicate. Unmarshal, when decoding the JSON into an IncomingMessage struct, will only allocate the data structures present in the JSON data. To know which messages to process, the programmer need simply test that either Cmd or Msg is not nil.

数据的船体放 可以给Cmd 或者Msg字段赋值 Unmarshal在decode JSON到IncomingMessage结构体时 只会分配那些在JSON中存在的字段 


Streaming Encoders and Decoders

The json package provides Decoder and Encoder types to support the common operation of reading and writing streams of JSON data.

json包提供了Decoder和Encode类型 支持常见的读写JSON数据流的操作

 The NewDecoder and NewEncoderfunctions wrap the  and  interface types.

NewDecoder和NewEncoder函数对io.Reader和io.Writer做了包装:

func NewDecoder(r io.Reader) *Decoder
func NewEncoder(w io.Writer) *Encoder

Here's an example program that reads a series of JSON objects from standard input, removes all but the Name field from each object, and then writes the objects to standard output:

下面这个示例 从标准输入读一系列的JSON对象 剔除除了Name外的所有字段 并写到标准输出

package main

import (
    "encoding/json"
    "log"
    "os"
)

func main() {
    dec := json.NewDecoder(os.Stdin)
    enc := json.NewEncoder(os.Stdout)
    for {
        var v map[string]interface{}
        if err := dec.Decode(&v); err != nil {
            log.Println(err)
            return
        }
        for k := range v {
            if k != "Name" {
                delete(v, k)
            }
        }
        if err := enc.Encode(&v); err != nil {
            log.Println(err)
        }
    }
}

Due to the ubiquity of Readers and Writers, these Encoder and Decoder types can be used in a broad range of scenarios, such as reading and writing to HTTP connections, WebSockets, or files.

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